Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (Biographical details)

Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (military/naval; French; Male; 1769 - 1821)

Also known as

Napoléon I; Napoléon; Bonaparte, Napoléon; Buonaparte, Napoléon; Buonaparte, Napoleone di

Biography

b. Corsica. 5 October 1795 quelled royalist coup. March 1796 commander of Army of Italy; 9 March married Josephine de Beauharnais (divorced 1809). 1798 Egyptian expedition. 9-10 November 1799 seized power as First Consul (coup of 18 Brumaire). 27 March 1802 Peace of Amiens. May 1803 Britain declared war against France; Napoleon prepared to invade. 28 May 1804 crowned Emperor of France; May 1805 crowned King of Italy. December 1804 Spain allied with France against Britain; 1805, Austria, Russia, Sweden and Naples allied with Britain against France. 21 October 1805, British destroyed Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar; 2 December 1805, French defeated Austrian and Russian armies at Austerlitz. 1806, Prussia entered war against France. 1807, French armies entered Spain to invade Portugal (British ally); May 1808, placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on Spanish throne. 1810 married Marie-Louise of Austria (one son); by then ruled, or had powerful influence over, much of Europe. 1812, invaded Russia; in September reached Moscow but Alexander I refused to negotiate and the French army withdrew, losing most of its men in the retreat. June 1813, French army defeated in Spain; August, Austria declared war on France; 16-19 October, defeat of French army by allied forces at battle of Leipzig. 30 March 1814, allied armies arrived outside Paris; 6 April, Napoleon abdicated in favour of Louis XVIII; sent to Elba where he arrived on 4 May. 1 March 1815, landed at Toulon; 20 March arrived in Paris (the 100 days); marched against allied troops in Belgium; 18 June, defeated at Waterloo; 22 June, abdicated again; sent to St Helena where he arrived on 15 October. From 1817 onwards showed signs of illness and died on 5 May 1821. 1840, his body was brought to Paris and re-buried with a magnificent funeral at the Invalides.

Bibliography

Jean Tulard (ed), 'Dictionnaire Napoleon', Paris 1987
A.M.Broadley, 'Napoleon in caricature', London 1911
Catherine Clerc, 'La caricature contre Napoleon', Paris 1985
S. & E. Scheffler, 'Napoleon I in der deutschen Karikatur', Hannover 1995
Hans Peter Mathis, 'Napoleon I im Spiegel der Karikatur', (catalogue of the Napoleon Museum in Arenenberg) 1998 (in P&D)
B.A.Day-Hickman, 'Napoleonic art ...1815-1848', 1999