The most important part of any archaeological project is that the results are published, so that scholars around the world can take account of the new information in their research.

This often takes a long time – as the mass of material can take years to process, study and interpret.

Final publication of Amara West will take many years, but here are some published articles on various aspects of the work so far:

General & Town

M. Binder, 2011, “Außergewöhnliches Amulett gefunden”, Antike Welt 2/11, 5.

R. Parkinson and N. Spencer, 2009, “The Teaching of Amenemhat at Amara”, Egyptian Archaeology 35, 25–27.

N. Spencer, 2009, “Cemeteries and a Ramesside suburb at Amara West”, Sudan & Nubia 13, 47–61.

N. Spencer, 2010, “Nubian architecture in an Egyptian town? Building E12.11 at Amara West”, Sudan & Nubia 14, 15–24.

N. Spencer, 2012, “Insights into life in occupied Kush during the New Kingdom: new research at Amara West”, Der Antike Sudan 23, 21–28.

N. Spencer, 2014a, ‘Creating and re-shaping Egypt in Kush: Responses at Amara West’, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 6/1, 42–61.

N. Spencer, 2014b, “Amara West: considerations on urban life in colonial Kush.” In Welsby, D and Anderson, J, R. (eds.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies. 1–6 August 2012, London. British Museum Publications on Egypt and Sudan 1. 457–485, Leuven.

N. Spencer, 2015, “Creating a Neighbourhood within a Changing Town: Household and other Agencies at Amara West in Nubia”, In M. Müller (ed.), Household Studies in Complex Societies. (Micro) Archaeological and Textual Approaches, Oriental Institute Seminars 10, 169–210.

N. Spencer and M. Binder, 2012, “Amara West – Life in Egypt’s Nubian Empire”, Current World Archaeology 54, 26–34.

N. Spencer and S. Hay, 2013, “Amara West: Remote sensing at a pharaonic town in northern Sudan”, in Proceedings of the conference, Archaeological Survey and the City. University of Cambridge, 176–201.

N. Spencer and M. Millet, 2013, “Amara Ouest: aspects de la vie quotidienne au Nouvel Empire en Nubie”, Académie des inscriptions & belles-lettres, 639–659.

N. Spencer, A. Stevens, M. Binder, 2014,“Amara West. Living in Egyptian Nubia”, London, British Museum.

N. Spencer, A. Stevens, M. Binder, 2014مدينة ءمارةغرب. London, British Museum.

Cemetery & Bioarchaeology

M. Binder, 2011, “The 10th-9th century BC - New Evidence from Cemetery C of Amara West”, Sudan & Nubia 15, 39–53.

M. Binder, 2014, “Cultural traditions and transitions during the New Kingdom colonial period and its aftermath – Recent discoveries from the cemeteries of Amara West” In Welsby, D. and Anderson, J. R., editors, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies. 487–503, Leuven: Peeters.

M. Binder and C.A. Roberts, 2014, “Calcified structures associated with human skeletal remains: Possible atherosclerosis affecting the population buried at Amara West, Sudan (1300–800 BC)”, International Journal of Paleopathology 6, 20–29.

M. Binder and N. Spencer, 2014, “The bioarchaeology of Amara West in Nubia: Investigating the impacts of political, cultural and environmental change on health and diet.” In: Fletcher A, Antoine D, Hill JD, editors. Regarding the Dead. London: British Museum Press, 123–136.

M. Binder, N. Spencer and M. Millet, 2010, “Cemetery D at Amara West: the Ramesside Period and its aftermath”, Sudan & Nubia 14, 25–44

M. Binder, N. Spencer, M. Millet, 2011, “Cemetery D at Amara West: the Ramesside Period and its aftermath.” British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 16, 47–99.

M. Binder, C. Roberts, N. Spencer, D. Antoine, C. Cartwright, “On the Antiquity of Cancer: Evidence for Metastatic Carcinoma in a Young Man from Ancient Nubia (c. 1200BC).” PLoS ONE 9(3): e90924. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.

Scientific Analyses

Ryan,P. and Homewood, K. 2016, Sustainability and subsistence systems in a changing Sudan: ethnobotanical and archaeobotanical investigations into past, present and future crop choices. Interim Project Report for the Sustainability and subsistence systems in a changing Sudan project.,_ryan_and_homewood.pdf

P. Ryan, 2016, “From raw resources to food processing; archaeobotanical and ethnographic insights from New Kingdom Amara West and present-day Ernetta Island in northern Sudan”, In L. Steel and K. Zinn (eds.), Exploring the Materiality of Food “Stuffs”: Archaeological and Anthropological Perspectives, Routledge

P. Ryan, C.R. Cartwright and N. Spencer, 2012, “Archaeobotanical research in a pharaonic town in ancient Nubia”, British Museum Technical Research Bulletin 6, 97–106.

P. Ryan, C.R. Cartwright and N. Spencer, 2016, “Charred macroremains (seeds, fruits) and phytoliths from villa E12.10 at Amara West, a pharaonic town in northern Sudan”, In U. Thanheiser (ed.) News from the past: progress in African archaeobotany. Barkhuis Publishing

P. Ryan and N. Spencer, 2013, “Diet and plant-use at Amara West”, Egyptian Archaeology 42, 18–20.

M. Spataro, M. Millet and N. Spencer, 2014, “The New Kingdom settlement of Amara West (Nubia, Sudan): mineralogical and chemical investigation of the ceramics”, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences.

N. Spencer, M. G. Macklin and J. C. Woodward, 2012, “Re-assessing the abandonment of Amara West: the impact of a changing Nile?”, Sudan & Nubia 16, 37–43.

J. Woodward, M. Macklin, L. Fielding, I. Millar, N. Spencer, D. Welsby and M. Williams, 2015, “Shifting sediment sources in the world's longest river: A strontium isotope record for the Holocene Nile”, Quaternary Science Reviews 130, 124–40.

Further reading

Egypt Exploration Society

The Egypt Exploration Society excavations at Amara West were not published by its excavators, but two books on the architecture, pottery and graves have appeared, based on the old archives:

P. Spencer, Amara West, I: The architectural report. Excavation Memoir 63 (London, 1997)

P. Spencer, Amara West, II: The cemetery and the pottery corpus. Excavation Memoir 69 (London, 2002).

P. Spencer, Amara West, III: The Scenes and Texts of the Ramesside Temple. Excavation Memoir 114 (London, 2016).

Historical background and context

In addition, the following recommended books provide a good introduction to the historical background and context:

D.N. Edwards, The Nubian Past. An Archaeology of the Sudan (London, 2004)

S.T. Smith, Wretched Kush: Ethnic Identity in Egypt’s Nubian Empire (London, 2003)