Collection online

kudurru

  • Object type

  • Museum number

    90829

  • Description

    Limestone kudurru: consists of a four-sided block with conical top. On each of the four sides are two panels of text, one above the other, the upper one consisting of not more than three lines. The corners of the stone are carved to represent lofty towers, the courses of the bricks or stone-work being indicated by lines. The conical top above the inscriptions is carved with emblems facing to the right. The text contains a deed of gift recording a grant of fifty 'gur' of corn-land in the province of Bit-Pir'-Amurri by Meli-Shipak to Khasardu, the son of Sume. The land was situated on the bank of the Royal Canal and was in the district of the city of Shaluluni. Four officials carried out the transfer of the property, and the deed was drawn up in the presence of seven high officials who are enumerated by name. Many symbols are carved onto the boundary-stone; Face A: (1) Composite being, in the form of a centaur, with attributes of man, beast, bird and reptile. The god has two heads, one human, with beard and thick hair falling on the shoulders, and on it he wears a conical head-dress probably provided with horns; the second head, facing backwards, is that of a lion. The god's torso and arms are human, and he is represented drawing a bow; ends of five arrows in a sheath are visible over his right shoulder. The body, hind legs, the lower tail, and the upper part of the fore legs are those of a horse; a second tail is that of a scorpion, and the fore legs end in scorpions, though only one scorpion is shown. Wings rise from the horse's shoulders. Face B: (2) Leaping dog, (3) Bird on perch, (4) Composite being, half man, half horse, resembling a satyr and grasping in both hands a spear or standard, the shaft formed from a palm-stem, (5) Spear-headed standard, with tassels. Face C: (6) Solar disc, (7) Mace with twin lion-heads, (8) Spear-head, (9) Goddess, carrying bowl and brush or flail, (10) Eagle-headed mace, (11) Lunar disc, (12) Lightning-fork. Face D: (13) Lamp, (14) Winged goddess with twining legs, (15) Ram-headed crook, (16) Eight-pointed star, (17) Cylindrical headdress, with feathered top and decorated with circles, standing on a carved table. Top of stone: (18) Serpent in a coil. The Solar and Lunar discs and the Eight-pointed star, though here separated, form a group, since they fill spaces in the upper field immediately below the serpent's outer coil.

    More 

  • Culture/period

  • Date

    • 1186BC-1172BC
  • Findspot

  • Materials

  • Technique

  • Dimensions

    • Width: 25 centimetres
    • Width: 24 centimetres
    • Height: 51 centimetres
    • Weight: 61.5 kilograms
  • Inscriptions

      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) šum ku-dur-r[i] (2) an-ni-I (3) (ilu)Adad bêlu ḳardu pa-at-ti nu-uḫ-ši šur-ka
      • Inscription Translation

        (1, 2) The name of this boundary stone is (3) "O Adad, mighty lord, bestow abundant streams!"
      • Inscription Comment

        Title.
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column four
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) (ilu) Adad bêl NI-DUB [ . . . . . ]-nun-šu liš-[ . . . . . ]
        (2) (ilu)Nergal i-na ša-ga-aš-ti pirʾ a-šu a-a i(?)-[ . . . . . ]
        (3) (ilu) Šu-ḳa-mu-na u (ilu)Šu-m[a-li-ia]
        (4) lu-u-ḳa-bu-u limutti(ti) [ . . . . . . . . ]
        (5) ilâni(pl.) ma-la i-na eli (abnu)narî an-ni-I [šum]šunu zak-ru
        (6) ar-rat la nap-šu-ri li-ru-ru-šu-ma[a]
        (7) u-ma iš-ten la balâṭ-su liḳ-bu-u
        (8) ša-a-šu šumšu u zêr-šu a-a u-šab-šu-u
        (9) ûmê(pl.) a-ru-ur-ti
        (10) šanâti(pl.) ḫu-ša-aḫ-ḫi
        (11) a-na ši-ma-ti-šu l[i]-ši-mu
        (12) eli ili šarri bêli u rubî
        (13) li-rik ri-nin-šu-ma
        (14) i-na limutti(ti) li-ik-la
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) May Adad, the lord of the crops(?), [ . . . . . . . . . . ] his [ . . . . . ]!
        (2) May Nergal in his destruction not [spare(?)] his offspring!
        (3) May Shukamuna and Shum[alia]
        (4) pronounce evil [against him(?) ]!
        (5) May all the gods, whose names are mentioned on this stone,
        (6) curse him with a curse that cannot be loosened,
        (7) may they command that he live not a single day,
        (8) may they not let him, nor his name, nor his seed endure;
        (9) days of drought,
        (10) years of famine,
        (11) may they assign for his lot,
        (12) before god, king, lord and prince
        (13) may his whining be continuous,
        (14) and may he come to an evil end!
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column one
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) 50 (šeʾu)zêru 1 GAN 30 (ḳa) 1 ammatu rabîtum(tum)
        (2) ugar (alu)Ša-lu-lu-ni kišâd Nâr-šarri
        (3) piḫât Bît-(m.)Pirʾ-(ilu)Amurri
        (4) šiddu elû pân iltâni UŠ-SA-DU Bît-(m.)Pirʾ-(ilu)Amurri
        (5) šiddu šaplu pân šûti
        (6) UŠ-SA-DU Amêl-iššakkê(pl.)-ša-Uš-tim
        (7) pûtu elû pân amurrî kišâd Nâr-šarri
        (8) pûtu šaplu pân šadî
        (9) UŠ-SA-DU Bît-(m.)Pirʾ-(ilu)Amurri
        (10) ša Me-li-Ši-pak šar kiššati
        (11) (m.)Ḫa-sar-du (amêlu)sukkal mu-ni-ri
        (12) mâr (m.)Su-m[e]-e arad-su i-ri-mu
        (13) (m.)Ib-ni-(ilu)Marduk mâr (m.)Arad-(ilu)E-a
        (14) ša-di-id-eḳli
        (15) (m. ilu)Šamaš-mu-bal-liṭ (amêlu) ḫa-za-an-nu
        (16) (m. ilu)Ba-u-aḫu-iddina(na) dupšar šakin mâti
        (17) u (m.)Itti-(ilu)Marduk-balâṭu (amêlu) šaḳ-šarri
        (18) eḳlu šu-a-tu[m] im-šu-ḫu-ma
        (19) a-na (m.)Ḫa-sar-du u-kin-nu
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) Fifty 'gur' of corn-land, one gan, measured by the great cubit, being reckoned at thirty 'ka' of seed,
        (2) in the district of the city of Shaluluni, on the bank of the Royal Canal,
        (3) in the province of Bit-Pir'-Amurri,
        (4) the upper length towards the north, adjoining Bit-Pir'-Amurri,
        (5) the lower length towards the south,
        (6) adjoining (the land of) Amel-ishshakke-sha-Ushtim,
        (7) the upper width towards the west on the bank of the Royal Canal,
        (8) the lower width towards the east,
        (9) adjoining Bit-Pir'-Amurri,
        (10) which Meli-Shipak, king of the world,
        (11) to Khasardu, the.....-minister,
        (12) the son of Sume, his servant, has presented -
        (13) Ibni-Marduk, the son of Arad-Ea,
        (14) who delimited the field,
        (15) Shamash-muballit, the prefect,
        (16) Bau-akhu-iddina, scribe to the governor of the land,
        (17) and Itti-Marduk-balatu, the king's officer,
        (18) measured that field,
        (19) and established it as the property of Khasardu.
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Script

        cuneiform
      • Inscription Position

        column two
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) i-n[a] k[a]-n[ak] li-u u dup[pi]
        (2) (m.)[Id]dina(na)-(ilu)Marduk šakkanak ba(?)-[ . . . . . ]
        (3) mât tâmti Bît-(m.)Ma-la-ḫ[i]
        (4) u ša-tam bît di(?)-bi-na
        (5) (m.)Ri-zi[ . . . . . ] –ni (amêlu)ka-šu
        (6) (m.)Li-bur-za-nin-E-kur (amêlu)šaḳû
        (7) (m.)Lûṣa-a-na-nûri-(ilu)Marduk (amêlu)sukkallu ṣîru
        (8) (m.)Iḳîša(ša)-(ilu)Ba-u mâr (m.)Arad-(ilu)E-a
        (9) UM(?)-MI A-GAR-RA(?) (m. ilu)Šamaš-šum-lišir
        (10) mâr (m.)At-ta-ilu-ma šakkanak A-ga-de(KI)
        (11) u Ki-din-(ilu)Marduk (amêlu)MER-GAL izzazû(pl. zu)
        (12) ma-ti-ma a-na ar[kâ]t u-mi
        (13) a-na ni-ši aḫ-ra-a-ti lu (amêlu)aklu
        (14) lu (amêlu)luputtu lu šakkanakku
        (15) a lu a-a-um-ma mâr ma-am-ma-na-ma
        (16) š ail-lam-ma i-na muḫḫi eḳli šu-a-tum
        (17) i-da-ab-bu-bu u-ša-ad-ba-bu
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) At the sealing of the deed and tablet
        (2) [Id]dina-Marduk, the ruler [.....]
        (3) of the Sea-Country, of Bit-Malakh[i],
        (4) and the keeper of the.....-house,
        (5) Rizi[ . . ]ni, the.....-official,
        (6) Libur-zanin-Ekur, the officer,
        (7) Lusa-ana-nuri-Marduk, the high minister,
        (8) Ikisha-Bau, the son of Arad-Ea,
        (9) the.........., Shamash-shum-lishir,
        (10) the son of Atta-iluma, the ruler of Agade,
        (11) and Kidin-Marduk, the....., are present (as witnesses).
        (12) Whensoever in days to come
        (13) among future men, an agent,
        (14) or a governor, or a ruler,
        (15) or anyone, or the son of anyone at all,
        (16) who shall rise up and in respect of that field
        (17) shall make a claim, or cause a claim to be made,
      • Inscription Type

        inscription
      • Inscription Position

        column three
      • Inscription Transliteration

        (1) eḳlu [ul] na-din-mi i-ḳab-bu-u
        (2) abnu šu-a-tum i-na aš-ri-šu
        (3) u-nak-ka-ru-ma lu a-na me-e lu a-na išâti inamdû(u)
        (4) lu i-na abni u-ab-bit-su
        (5) aššu ar-ra-a-ti ši-na-a-ti i-pal-la-ḫu-ma
        (6) lu sak-lam lu suk-ku-ka lu sa-ma-a
        (7) u-ša-aš-šu-ma a-šar la a-ma-ri ušaškanu(nu)
        (8) amêlu šu-a-tum ša ekla [it(?)]-ta-ba-lu
        (9) (ilu)A-nu-um a-bi ilâni(pl.) na[k]-r[iš] li-ru-ur-šu
        (10) (ilu)En-lil šar gim-ri še-ri-i[s]-s[u] li-mi-is-su
        (11) (ilu)E-a pa-ti-ik ni-ši šîmta-šu li-lam-man
        (12) (ilu)Šamaš daian šamê u irṣiti(ti) li-ḫal-liḳ šumšu
        (13) (ilu)Marduk abkal ilâni(pl.) i-na limutti(ti) li-ir-di-šu
        (14) (ilu)Nabû pa-ḳid kiš-š[a-ti . . . . . ] . . . . . –su
        (15) (ilu)A-nu-ni-tum a-ši-ba[t . . . . . . ] išid-su li-bit
        (16) (ilu)Nin-ib i-na taḫ[âzi kakka–š]u lišbir(ir)
        (17) (ilu)Nin-kar-ra-ag [ . . . . . ] zêr-šu lil-ḳut
      • Inscription Translation

        (1) or shall say: "The field was not presented,"
        (2) or shall change that stone from its place,
        (3) or shall cast it into the water, or into the fire,
        (4) or shall break it with a stone,
        (5) or because of these curses shall fear
        (6) and shall cause a fool or a deaf man or a blind man
        (7) to take it up, and set it in a place where it cannot be seen,
        (8) that man who shall take away the field,
        (9) may Anu, the father of the gods, curse him as a foe!
        (10) May Enlil, the king of all, inflict his punishment upon him!
        (11) May Ea, the creator of men, give him an evil fate!
        (12) May Shamash, the judge of heaven and earth, destroy his name!
        (13) May Marduk, the leader of the gods, pursue him with evil!
        (14) May Nabu, the overseer of the wor[ld . . . . . ] his [ . . . . . ]!
        (15) May Anunitum, who dwells in [ . . . . .], destroy his foundation!
        (16) May Ninib break his [weapon] in the ba[ttle]!
        (17) May Ninkarrag [ . . . . . ] snatch away his seed !
  • Curator's comments

    Compare with 1882,0522.1799 (BM.90835).

  • Bibliography

    • King 1912a no. IV, p.19, pls.XXIII-XXX bibliographic details
    • De Meyer L 1980a no.48, p.101 bibliographic details
    • Leichty E 1986a p.173 bibliographic details
    • British Museum 2011a pp.180-81, cat.155 bibliographic details
  • Location

    Not on display

  • Exhibition history

    2013 - 2014 22 June - 6 Jan, Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum, 'Mesopotamia, Inventing Our World'

    2013: 30 Jan-13 May, Museum of History, Hong Kong, 'The Wonders of Ancient Mesopotamia'

    2012: 4 May-7 Oct, Melbourne Museum, 'The Wonders of Ancient Mesopotamia'

    2011 28 March-26 June, Abu Dhabi, Manarat Al Saadiyat, 'Splendours of Mesopotamia'

    Temporary loan: 'Galileo: Images of the Universe from Antiquity to the Telescope', Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy, 12th Mar-30th Aug 2009

  • Subjects

  • Associated names

  • Acquisition name

  • Acquisition date

    1882

  • Department

    Middle East

  • BM/Big number

    90829

  • Registration number

    1882,0522.1798

Limestone kudurru: cosists of a four-sided block with conical top. On each of the four sides are two panels of text, one above the other, the upper one consisting of not more than three lines. The corners of the stone are carved to represent lofty towers, the courses of the bricks or stone-work being indicated by lines. The conical top above the inscriptions is carved with emblems facing to the right. The text contains a deed of gift recording a grant of fifty 'gur' of corn-land in the province of Bit-Pir'-Amurri by Meli-Shipak to Khasardu, the son of Sume. The land was situated on the bank of the Royal Canal and was in the district of the city of Shaluluni. Four officials carried out the transfer of the property, and the deed was drawn up in the presence of seven high officials who are enumerated by name. Many symbols are carved onto the boundary-stone; Face A: (1) Composite being, in the form of a centaur, with attributes of man, beast, bird and reptile. The god has two heads, one human, with beard and thick hair falling on the shoulders, and on it he wears a conical head-dress probably provided with horns; the second head, facing backwards, is that of a lion. The god's torso and arms are human, and he is represented drawing a bow; ends of five arrows in a sheath are visible over his right shoulder. The body, hind legs, the lower tail, and the upper part of the fore legs are those of a horse; a second tail is that of a scorpion, and the fore legs end in scorpions, though only one scorpion is shown. Wings rise from the horse's shoulders. Face B: (2) Leaping dog, (3) Bird on perch, (4) Composite being, half man, half horse, resembling a satyr and grasping in both hands a spear or standard, the shaft formed from a palm-stem, (5) Spear-headed standard, with tassels. Face C: (6) Solar disc, (7) Mace with twin lion-heads, (8) Spear-head, (9) Goddess, carrying bowl and brush or flail, (10) Eagle-headed mace, (11) Lunar disc, (12) Lightning-fork. Face D: (13) Lamp, (14) Winged goddess with twining legs, (15) Ram-headed crook, (16) Eight-pointed star, (17) Cylindrical headdress, with feathered top and decorated with circles, standing on a carved table. Top of stone: (18) Serpent in a coil. The Solar and Lunar discs and the Eight-pointed star, though here separated, form a group, since they fill spaces in the upper field immediately below the serpent's outer coil.

Limestone kudurru: cosists of a four-sided block with conical top. On each of the four sides are two panels of text, one above the other, the upper one consisting of not more than three lines. The corners of the stone are carved to represent lofty towers, the courses of the bricks or stone-work being indicated by lines. The conical top above the inscriptions is carved with emblems facing to the right. The text contains a deed of gift recording a grant of fifty 'gur' of corn-land in the province of Bit-Pir'-Amurri by Meli-Shipak to Khasardu, the son of Sume. The land was situated on the bank of the Royal Canal and was in the district of the city of Shaluluni. Four officials carried out the transfer of the property, and the deed was drawn up in the presence of seven high officials who are enumerated by name. Many symbols are carved onto the boundary-stone; Face A: (1) Composite being, in the form of a centaur, with attributes of man, beast, bird and reptile. The god has two heads, one human, with beard and thick hair falling on the shoulders, and on it he wears a conical head-dress probably provided with horns; the second head, facing backwards, is that of a lion. The god's torso and arms are human, and he is represented drawing a bow; ends of five arrows in a sheath are visible over his right shoulder. The body, hind legs, the lower tail, and the upper part of the fore legs are those of a horse; a second tail is that of a scorpion, and the fore legs end in scorpions, though only one scorpion is shown. Wings rise from the horse's shoulders. Face B: (2) Leaping dog, (3) Bird on perch, (4) Composite being, half man, half horse, resembling a satyr and grasping in both hands a spear or standard, the shaft formed from a palm-stem, (5) Spear-headed standard, with tassels. Face C: (6) Solar disc, (7) Mace with twin lion-heads, (8) Spear-head, (9) Goddess, carrying bowl and brush or flail, (10) Eagle-headed mace, (11) Lunar disc, (12) Lightning-fork. Face D: (13) Lamp, (14) Winged goddess with twining legs, (15) Ram-headed crook, (16) Eight-pointed star, (17) Cylindrical headdress, with feathered top and decorated with circles, standing on a carved table. Top of stone: (18) Serpent in a coil. The Solar and Lunar discs and the Eight-pointed star, though here separated, form a group, since they fill spaces in the upper field immediately below the serpent's outer coil.

Image description

Recommend


Feedback

If you’ve noticed a mistake or have any further information about this object, please email: collectiondatabase@britishmuseum.org 

View open data for this object with SPARQL endpoint

Object reference number: WCO23566

British Museum collection data is also available in the W3C open data standard, RDF, allowing it to join and relate to a growing body of linked data published by organisations around the world.

View this object

Support the Museum:
donate online

The Museum makes its collection database available to be used by scholars around the world. Donations will help support curatorial, documentation and digitisation projects.

About the database

The British Museum collection database is a work in progress. New records, updates and images are added every week.

More about the database 

Supporters

Work on this database is supported by a range of sponsors, donors and volunteers.

More about supporters and how you
can help  

Loading...