- Also known as
primary name: Zuccaro, Federico
other name: Zuccari, Federico
other name: Zuccaro, Federigo
other name: Zucchero, Federico
- individual; painter/draughtsman; Roman; Marchigian; Italian; Male
- Life dates
- Painter; worked in Rome, Florence, France, Netherlands, England and Madrid. Younger brother of Taddeo Zuccaro. b. S. Angelo in Vado, 18 Apr. (see 'Paragone' 105 (1958), p. 58) 1540 or 1541 (towards the end of 1565 FZ describes himself as in his 25th year: see Pp,3.196; and on a fresco in the Collegio Borromeo in Pavia, dated 1604, as in 65th: see A. Maiocchi and P. Moiraghi, 'Gli affreschi [del] Collegio Borromeo di Pavia', Pavia, 1908); d. Ancona, 20 July 1609 (Körte, p. 79).
1550, FZ was left in Rome in the care of his brother Taddeo, who became his teacher and whom he assisted in a number of commissions datable c. 1559 -60 (Vasari). Evidence of drawings suggests that F. was more dependent on T. than Vasari implies, e.g., in S. M. dell'Orto (see 1895,0915.655; also Gere, pp. 88, 97ff., pls 111-7). A study in Düsseldorf (FP 6505) for a figure in FZ's first independent work, a façade near S. Eustachio, is inscribed in his hand "de mano de federigo de tadeo i[n]ventor" (see also Körte, 'Mitteilungen', iii (1932), pp. 518ff; Gere, 'Uffizi Exh.', 1966, nos. 29, 30 and 'Manierismo', pl. xviii). June/ Sept. 1559 accompanied T. to Orvieto (Gere, p. 90).
Vatican: May 1560, payments jointly with TZ for work in Sala dei Palafrenieri (Körte, p. 71). 1561-3 payments for work in Belvedere and Casino of Pius IV. Surviving works include part of 'Moses' cycle in present Museo Etrusco, Sala II (Gere, p. 85; Gere, 'Louvre', no. 45 and 'Uffizi Exh.' 1966, nos. 36-9; cf. Barocci) and at least two rooms in the Casino (Ackerman, doc. 156; G. Smith, 'The Casino of Pius IV', Princeton, 1977, pp. 72ff.).
Called to Venice by Cardinal Grimani, either between Aug. 1562 and June 1563 or at the end of 1563 (see Gere, 'Uffizi Exh.' 1966, no. 41). Palazzo Grimani a Santa Maria Formosa, vault of staircase, much damaged: ovals of 'Architecture' and 'Music' (studies in Louvre 4516, 4470, 4471), a roundel of seven women, probably the 'Liberal Arts', and two allegories of 'Justice' (one engr. by Cort, BdH 223; see also Gere, 'Uffizi Exh.', 1966, nos. 40, 41; staircase vault repr. 'Apollo', cxiii (1981), p. 219).
S. Francesco della Vigna, Venice, Grimani Chapel, 1st on l., frescoes: r.-hand lateral, 'Raising of Lazarus' (Gere: 'Uffizi Exh.', 1966, nos. 42-4 and 'Louvre', nos. 46-8; Rearick in 'Saggi e memorie di storia dell'arte', 2, (1958-9), pp. 105ff., figs. 13-18) and l.-hand lateral (lost), 'Conversion of the Magdalen' (Rearick, op. cit., figs. 19-21; see also Gere, 'Uffizi Exh.', 1966, no. 47, fig. 34); 'Adoration of Magi' above altar, dated 1564 (Rearick, op. cit., figs. 22-3; see also Gere, 'Manierismo', pl. xix). Project for decoration of E. wall of Sala del Maggior Consiglio, in Doge's Palace, not executed. Composition studies: Metropolitan Museum 61.201, (see Voss, 'Burlington', xcvi (1954), pp. 172ff.) and Louvre 4546 (Gere, 1969 Exh., no. 49, pl. xii). For Palladio's temporary theatre, the 'colosseo', F. painted 12 "storie ... d'Ircano re di Ierusalem" (Vasari). After accompanying Palladio to Friuli, F. came to Florence by way of Lombardy. (A sheet of studies for a tomb, in Museo Civico, Vicenza (D. 17), traditionally attributed to Palladio seems to us to be wholly by F.) Summer 1565, brief return to Rome (Gere, p. 118, n. 1). Oct. 1565 admitted to Florentine Accademia del Disegno (Pevsner, 'Mitteilungen', iv, (1933), p. 129). In Florence painted large-scale hunting scene on drop-curtain for play performed as part of wedding festivities of Francesco de' Medici and Joanna of Austria on 26 Dec. 1565 (see Pp,3.196).
16 Jan. 1566 returned to Rome (Vasari). Vasari lists among works undertaken soon after his return the 'St Peter in Prison' (Pitti) painted for the Duke of Urbino, and, in S. M. Annunziata, Rome: 'Annunciation', etc. (destroyed; see 1943,1113.24).
After TZ's death, Sept. 1566, FZ completed his unfinished commissions (Vasari). These included: Palazzo Farnese, Sala dei Fasti Farnesiani. A sketch in the Uffizi (11103F; 1966 exh., fig. 36) for a detail of one of the small 'quadri riportati' above the doorways is inscribed, in FZ's hand: "de mano de federigo/ de tadeo i (n)venti[one]".
SS. Trinità dei Monti, 'Assumption' and 'Augustus and the Sibyl' in l. transept (see 1946,0713.1537 and 1949,0812.9). Caprarola. In charge of decoration Sept. 1566-July 1569 when he was abruptly provoked into resigning (Partridge, 'Art Bulletin', liii (1971), p. 470; see Gere, pp. 107ff, 117f.). In a marginal note to Vasari (Milanesi ed., vii, p, 109), F. claims the Chapel (see 5224.4); the Gabinetto dell'Ermatena; the Sala d'Ercole, in fact completed by Bertoia, as Partridge was the first to point out (op. cit., p. 472, figs. 14,15, 21, 27, 28), and the Sala d'Ingresso. Vatican, Sala Regia: completion of S. wall (see 1946,0209.32). S. M. Marcello al Corso, completed Frangipani Chapel. FZ describes his finishing touches as "pocho ho nullo di momento" (Vasari-Milanesi, vii, p. 97); Vasari, writing c. 1566, says "l'ha finita Federigo questo anno". S. Lorenzo in Damaso, high altarpiece, 'Martyrdom of St Lawrence with Coronation of the Virgin', apparently a conflation of two alternative designs by Taddeo, well under way by beginning of 1568 (Gere, pp. 126f., n. 1; Gere, 'Burlington', cviii (1966), pp. 341ff., figs. 5, 10, 11).
Works commissioned directly from FZ: Villa d'Este, Tivoli, payments for work there. 1566-72 (Coffin, p. 48, n. 28; p. 51, n. 34; p. 57, n. 52). Vasari says FZ worked in 'Sala della Nobiltà' and 'Sala della Gloria'; his hand is also recognisable in the Chapel (see Coffin, pls. 50-2, 67-75). Nov. 1568, Orvieto, two altarpieces commissioned for Cathedral (see 1895,0915.573 and Gere, p. 89, n. 1). Feb. and June, 1569, payments for 'cappella' in S. Eligio degli Orefici (see Gere, p. 137, no. 21) and for unspecified work there July and Dec. 1569 (S. Eligio archives). S. Caterina dei Funari: 2nd chapel on r., 'Evangelists' on entrance pilasters, one signed, the other dated 1571; payments for 'cappella maggiore' Apr. and Aug. 1572 (Strinati, 'Storia dell'arte', p. 94, n. 17; see Ff,1.27 in which FZ was assisted by Raffaellino da Reggio (q.v.). Oratorio del Gonfalone, 'Flagellation', inscribed with date 1573.
1574 travelled to Netherlands (Crino, 'Rivista d'Arte', xxxiv, (1959), p. 156). In England shortly after 15 March until Aug. 1575 (see Gg,1.418).
1575-9 in Florence: Finished decoration of Cathedral cupola begun by Vasari, (see 1862,1011.191; 1863,0509.630-2; 1953,0731.48; Heikamp, 'Paragone' 205 (1967), pp. 44ff). Decorated his own house in Via Capponi (see 1946,0713.1266a); also designed rusticated façade of adjoining studio in Via Giusti (Heikamp, 'Paragone' 207 (1967), pp. 3ff. Made proposals for reorganisation of Florentine Accademia del Disegno (Heikamp, 'Rivista', pp. 216ff). Fresco of 'Annunciation' in portico of S. M. Nuova (Voss, p. 459) probably dates from this period. Visited Vallombrosa, Aug. 1576 and 1577 (see 1895,0915.657).
Jan. 1580, returned to Rome (Körte). Decoration of Cappella Paolina in Vatican commissioned not later than 8 Apr. (Gaye, 'Carteggio', iii, p. 432f.) but interrupted by exile from Rome in Nov. 1581 (see below). Resumed decoration on return in Apr. 1583; last recorded payment March 1584; Chapel completed 1585 (Baumgart-Biagetti, 'Gli affreschi ... nella Cappella Paolina in Vaticano', Vatican, Rome, 1934, pp. 91ff.; see also 'Italian 16th Century Drawings from British Private Collections', Exh. Edinburgh, 1969, pl. 27).
1580, altarpiece of 'Procession of St Gregory' (lost, but see Heikamp, 'Rivista', figs. 3, 4, and Gere, 'Rosenbach', pl. 10) for church of Madonna del Baraccano in Bologna, commissioned but rejected by Paolo Ghiselli, an official of the Papal Household. The satirical painting 'Porta Virtutis' which F. exhibited on 18 Oct. 1581 was interpreted as a libellous attack on Gregory XIII's Bolognese entourage, and he was exiled from the Papal States on 27 Nov. (see Heikamp, ut. cit. and Gere, ut. cit.) and retired to Florence (Körte). A contemporary painting (160 cm x 113 cm) of the 'Porta Virtutis', possibly even the original, differing in many details from any of the known drawings, was with a dealer in Reggio Emilia in 1975.
Venice. Doge's Palace, Sala del Maggior Consiglio, 'Barbarossa submitting to Innocent III', s. and d. 1582 but not finished until 1603 (Körte; Voss, fig. 181; Gere, 'Rosenbach', no. 21, pl. 14). Loreto, Basilica, della Rovere Chapel, scenes from the life of the Virgin including 'Visitation', dated 1583, and 'Assumption' (Körte; Voss, fig. 180; drawings: Gere, 'Uffizi Exh.' 1966, no. 72; Uffizi 4131s, Gernsheim 7199; Berlin 22141).
Dec. 1583, FZ in Rome and again in service of Gregory XIII. 'Christ in Limbo' for Cesena, now Brera, s. and d. 1585 (Körte; Venturi, ix5, fig. 528). 1585, summoned to Spain as court-painter to continue decoration of Escorial (see J. Zarco Cuevas, 'Pintores italianos ... en el Escorial', 1932, p. 195). Aug. 1585, payment for journey (Gronau, pp. 217f.) 'Assumption', s. and d. 1587 (Zarco Cuevas, repr. between pp. 200 and 201); studies for 'Annunciation' on reliquary doors (ibid., repr. between pp. 208 and 209) in Louvre (11, 237 as Anon.) and Munich (2583 as A. Casolani: see Gere, 'Louvre Exh.' 1969, under no. 104). While in Spain made series of drawings illustrating Dante's 'Divina Commedia', now Uffizi (Vasari-Milanesi, vii, p. 134, n. ; Gernsheim 11218 -11369; all repr. in C. Ricci, 'La Divina Commedia nell'arte del Cinquecento', Milan, 1908). Returned to Italy between 10 Dec. 1588 and 19 Apr. 1589 (Gronau, pp. 222f., docs, cccxxxiv, cccxxxvi).
Apr. 1590 acquired land in Rome on Pincio for house, building 1591-3 (Körte, pp. 77, 81), ground-floor frescoes 1598 (ibid.). Design in Hermitage (28220, as G. da Udine) for garden-pavilion with FZ's sugar-loaf device and coat-of-arms perhaps made in this connection. In his will, of 1603 (Körte, ibid.) bequeathed the Palazzo Zuccaro to the Accademia di S. Luca, which he had reorganised and of which he became president in Nov. 1593 (Pevsner, 'Academies of Art', 1940, pp. 59f). He had previously been 'Reggente' of Virtuosi al Pantheon from 1572 to 1584 (Körte).
Late works include: S. Prassede, Olgiati Chapel, altarpiece, 'Carrying of Cross', dated 1595 (Baglione; Röttgen, p. 31). Also in 1590s, Chapel of the Angels, 3rd on r. in Gesù, altarpiece, vault, pendentives and laterals (Baglione; Hibbard, 'Gesù', pp. 38f., 46f., pls. 31b, 32b-33b).
Lucca Cathedral, 'Adoration of Magi' (Venturi, ix5, fig. 529), 1595 (Körte). Rome, S. Pudenziana, Caetanì Chapel, cartoons for mosaics (Baglione, p. 170), work in progress 8 Dec. 1599 (Mancini-Salerno, n. 1412). S. Sabina, Chapel of St Hyacinth, vault (dated 1600) and side walls.
June 1603, FZ left Rome and spent the next six years travelling in Italy (Körte; Heikamp, 'Paragone' 105). Datable works include: S. Angelo in Vado, altarpiece, 'Madonna and Saints with Donors', s. and d. 1603 (Körte; Venturi, ix5, fig. 530; composition study in Musée des Beaux-Arts, Chartres). 1604, Pavia, Collegio Borromeo, fresco, 'Carlo Borromeo created Cardinal' (Maiocchi-Moirachi, 'Gli affreschi [del] Collegio Borromeo di Pavia', p. 41, pl. 15; Gere, 'Uffizi Exh.' 1966, no. 78). 1605 at court of Mantua (Körte).
1605-7, Turin, where he began decoration of a gallery (lost) for Duke Carlo Emanuele of Savoy (see Moccagatta, 'Arte Lombarda', viii (1963), 2, pp. 205ff). His 'L'Idea de' Pittori, Scultori et Architetti', published there 1607. 1608, in Parma (Körte; see Copertini, 'Parma nell'arte' (1970), i, pp. 7ff.).
- Gere & Pouncey 1983
W. Körte, Der Palazzo Zuccari in Rom: sein Freskenschmuck und seine Geschichte. Leipzig, 1935; (abbr. as Körte); 'Verlorene Frühwerke des Federico Zuccaro in Rom', Mitteilungen, 8, iii (1932), pp. 518ff.; Thieme-Becker (1947) with previous bibliography; H. Voss, 'A project of Federico Zuccari for the "Paradise" in the Doges' Palace', Burlington, xcvi (1954), pp. 172ff; D. Heikamp, 'Vicende di Federigo Zuccari', Rivista d'arte, xxxii (1957), pp. 175ff.; 'I viaggi di Federico Zuccaro', Paragone, 105 (1958), pp. 40ff.; 'Federico Zuccari a Firenze 1575-1579', Paragone 205 (1967), pp. 44ff.; and 207, pp. 3ff.; Gere, Rosenbach (1970); C.M. Strinati, 'Studio sulla teorica d'arte primo-seicentesca tra Manierismo e Barocco', Storia dell'arte, 13 (1972), pp. 67ff.; 'Gli anni difficili di Federico Zuccari', Storia dell'arte, 21 (1974), pp. 85ff.; S. Rossi, 'Idea e accademia. Studio sulle teorie artistiche di Federico Zuccaro', Storia dell'arte, 20 (1974), pp. 37ff; Turner, Florentine Drawings of the Sixteenth Century, London, 1986.