- Also known as
primary name: Baartman, Saartjie
other name: Baartman, Sarah
other name: Baartman, Sara
other name: Bartmann, Sarah
other name: Sartje
pseudonym: Hottentot Venus
- individual; South African; Female
- Life dates
- A Khoikhoi woman from South Africa; the so-called 'Hottentot Venus' was brought to Europe in 1810 and exhibited in Britain and France where she died of smallpox at the end of 1815. A cast was made of her body after her death and her skeleton and organs were preserved by the anatomist Georges Cuvier; her remains were returned to South Africa in 2002. She is portrayed in several prints held by the Museum, notably satires which can be traced in George's 'Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires...' (BMSat index, s.v. Sartje) and in De Vinck. Her life has been discussed extensively in literature relating to colonialism, racism and sexism (see bibliography). A detailed account is provided by Holmes 2007/2016.
- Dictionary of National Biography
P.R. Kirby, 'The Hottentot Venus,' "Africana Notes and News" 6/3 (June 1949), pp.55-62
P.R. Kirby, ‘More about the Hottentot Venus’, "Africana Notes and News", 10/4 (1953), 124–34
R. D. Altick, 'The Shows of London', 1978, pp.268-72
P. Edwards and J. Walvin, ‘Saartjie Baartman, the Hottentot Venus’, Black personalities in the era of the slave trade' 1983, pp.171–82
S.J. Gould, ‘The Hottentot Venus’, in 'The flamingo's smile: reflections in natural history', 1985, pp. 211–305
S.L. Gilman, ‘The Hottentot and the prostitute: toward an iconography of female sexuality’, Difference and pathology: stereotypes of sexuality, race, and madness (1985), pp. 76–108
L. Schiebinger, 'Nature's body: gender in the making of modern science', New Brunswick and New Jersey, 1993
A. Fausto-Sterling, 'Gender, Race and Nation. The comparative anatomy of 'Hottentot' women in Europe, 1815-1817' in J. Terry & J. Uria, 'Deviant Bodies'. Bloomington, 1995, pp.19- 48.
B. Lindfors, 'Hottentot, Bushman, Kaffir: taxonomic tendencies in nineteenth-century racial iconography', in Nordic Journal of African Studies 5(2), 1996, pp. 1–28.
Z. S. Strother, ‘Display of the Body Hottentot’ in Bernth Lindfors (ed.), 'Africans on Stage', Bloomington, 1999
G. Badou, 'L'énigme de la Vénus hottentote', Paris, 2000
S. Serbin, 'Reines d'Afrique et héroïnes de la diaspora noire', Éditions Sépia, Paris, 2004, pp.257-270.
S. Qureshi, 'Displaying Sara Baartman, the 'Hottentot Venus''. History of Science 42, 2004, pp. 233–257.
R. Holmes, 'The Hottentot Venus: The Life and Death of Saartjie Baartman', London, 2007 (see also later edition published 2016)
C. Crais and P. Scully, 'Sara Baartman and the Hottentot Venus. A Ghost Story and a Biography', Princeton, 2009
E. Elbourne, 'Sara Baartman and Andries Stoffels: Violence, Law and the Politics of Spectacle in London and the Eastern Cape, 1809-1836', "Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines", 45/3 (2011), pp. 524–564.
N. Gordon-Chipembere, 'Representation and Black Womanhood. The Legacy of Sarah Baartman', London, 2011.
P. Mitter, 'Science, race and the objectification of Sara Baartman', in congress proceedings of Germanisches Nationalmuseums, 2013, pp. 552-555
A.E. Wright, 'The Hottentot Venus: An alternative iconography', The British Art Journal, XIV, 2013, pp. 59-70
Bertha and Brenda Spies, 'Saartjie', "African Arts", 2014, 47/2 (2014), pp. 66–75
R. Holmes, 'The Hottentot Venus: The Life and Death of Sarah Baartman', London, 2016