- Also known as
primary name: Hugo, Victor
other name: Hugo, Victor Marie
- individual; author/poet; painter/draughtsman; French; Male
- Life dates
- Novelist, poet and artist; most famous works include 'Hernani' (play, 1830), 'Notre Dame de Paris' (novel, 1831), 'Ruy Blas' (play, 1838), 'Les Châtiments' (poetry, 1853), 'Les Contemplations' (poetry, 1856), 'La Légende des siècles' (poetry, 1859) and 'Les Misérables' (novel, 1862). Elected at the Académie Française (1841), named Peer of France (1841). Highly involved in politics, his heavy criticism of Napoleon III (q.v.), whom he nicknamed 'Napoléon le petit', led to his exile on the island of Guernsey, where he lived until the emperor's fall, in 1870. When he died, he was granted national funeral and was buried in the Pantheon. Hugo was also an accomplished draughtsman.
- 'La Gloire de VH', Grand Palais, Paris, 1985 (814pp)