- Girolamo da Carpi
- Also known as
Girolamo da Carpi
primary name: Girolamo da Carpi
other name: Carpi, Girolamo da
other name: Sellari, Girolamo
- individual; painter/draughtsman; Roman; North Italian; Italian; Male
- Life dates
- 1501-c. 1556
- Painter and draughtsman. Girolamo Sellari da Carpi (see Mezzetti, p. 51), b. Ferrara c. 1501, d. there 1556 aged 55 (Vasari). Voss ('Städel-Jahrbuch', iii-iv (1924), p. 102) followed by Antal ('Art Bulletin' (1948), p. 89, n. 54), claims that a letter of 1557 refers to G. as alive, but neither names the source: the only one that we have been able to trace is E. Rodocanachi ('Renée de France, Duchesse de Ferrare', Paris 1895, p. 290), notoriously unreliable as an interpreter of documents (cf. 'Burlington '(1960), p. 16, n. 30), who gives no location or exact date for the letter and no 'verbatim' quotation. Vasari's date for G.'s death is supported by the annotation 'morse' against the entry of 1 Aug. 1556, the last of a series of regular payments from Cardinal Ippolito d'Este (Mezzetti, p. 63).
According to Vasari, G. was first a pupil of his father, described as a minor decorative painter (employed by the Este of Ferrara 1503-45, see Mezzetti, pp. 22, 51ff.), and then of Garofalo. Plausibly identified by Mezzetti (p. 52) with the 'Gerolimo' recorded as a garzone in Garofalo's studio at the beginning of 1520. According to Vasari, who emphasises that his source was G. himself (whom he knew well in Rome in 1550), after leaving Ferrara G. spent some time in Bologna, where he achieved success as a portrait painter, but that admiration for Correggio led him to go to Modena and then to Parma. Antal also points out the influence on G. of Peruzzi's Bentivoglio cartoon executed in Bologna 1522 (N.G., London). In 1525-6 he is documented once more in Bologna, decorating the sacristy of S. Michele in Bosco in collaboration with Biagio Pupini and Gerolamo Borzese (Mezzetti, p. 53, nos. 4-10, pls. 3-13). The documents published by Mezzetti refute Malvasia's attribution of the decoration to Bagnacavallo; but Vasari's statement that G. broke off the partnership with Pupini should be considered in the light of a drawing in the Albertina of the incredulity of St Thomas, to all appearances by Pupini, which corresponds exactly with the relief on the Plinth supporting the principal group in G.'s 'Pentecost' in S. Francesco, Rovigo, a work generally dated ln the late 1530s (Mezzetti, figs. 29-30). 1530, S. Francesco, Ferrara, frieze in nave (mostly destroyed) by G. and his father (Vasari; Mezzetti, pp. 19; 53; nos 52-3, pls. v, vi): G.'s arpiece, 'The Virgin appearing to Giulia Muzzarelli', formerly in transept, now Washington (Mezzetti, no. 145, pl. ix; copy by Scarsellino in 6th chapel on l. in S. Francesco).
Works in Bologna: S. Salvatore, 'Mystic Marriage of St Catherine', according to Vasari, G. 's first independent work (Mezzetti, no. 12, fig. 18); S. Martino, 'Adoration of Magi', frame dated 1532 (Mezzetti, no. 3, pl. vii).
July 1536, referred to as the "companion" of Garofalo and summoned with him to Belriguardo, a villa of Duke Ercole II of Ferrara (Mezzetti, p. 54). May, June 1537, payments to both and also to Battista Dossi, Pupini, Camillo Filippi and Jacopo da Faenza for work in the villa. Further payments 1541-9 to G. (Mezzetti, pp. 56ff.) for work in other ducal residences, including Coppara of which Vasari says that G. and Garofalo "dipinsero parimente insieme, fuori e dentro" (all lost: see Mezzetti, p. 32). Before 1541, drawings for Canani's 'Musculorum humani corporis picturata dissectio' (Mezzetti, pp. 55f; Serafini, figs. 42-68). 1541, scenery for G.B. Giraldi's 'Orbecche' in Ferrara (Mezzetti, p. 56). Oct. 1541, payment for 'Chance and Penitence', now Dresden (Mezzetti, p. 57, no. 32, pl. xv). By Jan. 1544 completed 'Galatea' (Mezzetti, p. 58, no. 33, pl. xiii) and 'Ganymede' (Mezzetti, p. 58, no. 85, pl. xvi), both now Dresden. Feb. 1545, scenery for Giraldi's 'L'Egle', 'favola di satiri' (Mezzetti, pp. 59f.).
30 Aug. 1549-Feb. 1552, monthly payments (Mezzetti, p. 62) from Cardinal Ippolito d'Esté, who took him to Rome where he was established by 1550 (Vasari). For the Cardinal's garden at Montecavallo (Quirinal) he designed wooden structures to display the Cardinal's collection of antique sculpture. His numerous drawings after the Antique must be from this period: one is dated 24 Apr. 1553 (Canedy, p. 7). For his close association with the Cardinal's antiquarian, Pirro Ligorio, see 1946,0713.304 and 1946,0713.305. For a short time he was also employed by Julius III as architect: payments Dec. 1550 and Apr. 1551 for work in the Belvedere, and Jan. 1551 for work in Palazzo del Monte, now di Firenze (Ackerman, docs. 72, 75; Serafini, p. 358). Vasari says that G. soon returned to the service of Cardinal d'Este. Back in Ferrara by Dec. 1553 (Mezzetti, p. 63). Entrusted by the Duke with reconstruction of the Castello after fire of 1 Feb. 1554. Payments from Cardinal Ippolito, Feb.-Aug. 1554 and Jan.-Aug. 1556 (Mezzetti, p. 63).
- Gere & Pouncey 1983
Thieme-Becker (1912) with previous bibliography; A. Serafini, Girolamo da Carpi pittore e architetto ferrarese, Rome, 1915; R. Wittkower, 'Patience and Chance', Warburg Journal, (1937) pp. 171-7; P. Pouncey, 'Drawings by Garofalo', Burlington, xcvii, (1955), p. 200; H. Schmidt, 'Das Skizzenbuch 14760 der Biblioteca Reale in Turin' in Festschrift für Dr Eduard Trautscholdt, 1965, pp. 87ff.; F. Antal, 'Observations on Girolamo da Carpi', in Art Bulletin, xxx (1948), pp. 81ff. (reprinted in Classicism and Romanticism, 1966); B. Fischer, 'A Sixteenth-century Italian Drawing', Bulletin; University of Michigan, Museum of Art, n.s. 3, (1968), pp. 9ff.; N. Canedy, 'Some preparatory drawings by Girolamo da Carpi', Burlington, cxii, (1970), pp. 86ff; The Roman Sketchbook of Girolamo da Carpi, The Warburg Institute, University of London, 1976, with bibliography (abbr. as 'Canedy'), reviewed by J.A. Gere, MD, xvi (1978), pp. 180ff.; R. Olsen, 'The Fulfillment of an Ideal: Two Drawings by Girolamo da Carpi', Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University, 32 (1973). pp. l6ff.; B Fredericksen, 'Girolamo da Carpi, Holy Family', f. Paul Getty Museum journal, iii (1976). p. 105; A. Mezzetti, Girolamo da Ferrara detto da Carpi: L'opera pittorica, publ. Cassa di Risparmio di Ferrara, Milan, 1977, fully illustrated and with bibliography.