Mould-made large amuletic figure in glazed composition, in the shape of a falcon standing on base, maybe associated with the god Horus; well proportioned; tail and feet in openwork; triple-ridged suspension loop pierced widthways at back of neck; decayed light greenish turquoise glaze with added black-brown glaze on tail, talons and front of neck; white-yellow porous paste; head of falcon and front of plinth broken off, chipped in places.
- Production date
- 6thC BC
Height: 4.80 centimetres
Length: 1.50 centimetres (plinth)
Width: 1.85 centimetres
- Curator's comments
Findspot 'town' is recorded in the 1975 register, findspot 'faience factory' is recorded on old label. Marked on base in pencil 'Φ4' and '71'. 'Phi' numbers appear to have been used also for material from sites other than Naukratis that was distributed by the EEF (cf. EEF distribution lists of 1898).
Neither from the documentation in Dundee nor from the EEF distribution lists does it become clear when the objects from Naukratis (and Tell Dafana) entered the Museum, as neither of the sites is mentioned in them. Objects in the McManus Galleries were (re-)registered in 1975 after the loss of the original registers (some of which were later recovered). According to the museum's yearly Reports, the Galleries received objects from the EEF in 1888, 1889/90, 1892 (not all Reports were available to us for consultation), and every year from 1900 until 1914, but these donations are usually not recorded in the registers. Donations were made either directly by the EEF (1889/90 and 1914), per Amelia Edwards (1888 and 1889/90), or per the local secretaries of the EEF: Rev. Colin Campbell (1892 until 1905), Mr. J. Maclauchlan (1906), and Mr. A.H. Millar (1907-1913). Additional donations were made by the British School of Archaeology in Egypt in 1914.
Falcons are often associated with Horus, though various deities and the pharaoh himself can assume a falcon form (Davies, Smith 2005, 54); the identification of the deity represented is even harder in the case of amulets (Andrews 1994, 27-28; on various types of falcon amulets: Herrmann et al. 2010, 103-104).
Numerous amulets of falcons, made out of bronze, glazed composition, stone and Egyptian blue, were discovered in Naukratis. This rather large amuletic figure belongs to a common type at Naukratis, probably produced locally (Masson forthcoming; on this specific type of falcon figure, also found and produced in Kamiros: Webb 1978, 95, no. 685), maybe at the Scarab Factory itself (Webb forthcoming). Part of this production was intended for the Greek market. Some were discovered in the Greek temples of Apollo and Aphrodite in Naukratis.
Andrews, C.A.R. 1994, Amulets of Ancient Egypt, London.
Davies, S., Smith, H.S. 2005, The sacred animal necropolis at North Saqqara: the falcon complex and catacomb (Egypt Exploration Society Memoirs 73), London.
Herrmann, C., Staubli, T., Berger-Lober, S., Keel, O., Schönbächler, G. 2010, 1001 Amulett : altägyptischer Zauber, monotheisierte Talismane, säkulare Magie, Bibel+Orient-Museum, Liebefeld, Stuttgart.
Masson, A. forthcoming, ‘Naukratis: Egyptian offerings in context’, in M. Bergeron and A. Masson (eds), Naukratis in Context II: Cults, Sanctuaries and Offerings. Proceedings of the Second Naukratis Project Workshop held at the British Museum, 22nd – 23rd June 2013.
Webb, V. 1978, Archaic Greek Faience, Miniature scent bottles and related objects from East Greece, 650-500BC, Warminster.
Webb, V. forthcoming, Faience finds from Naukratis and their implications for the chronology of the site, in R. Thomas (ed.), forthcoming. Naukratis in Context I: The Nile Delta as a Landscape of Connectivity. Proceedings of the First Naukratis Project Workshop held at The British Museum 16th – 17th December 2011.
- Not on display
- Rather fair, but incomplete and glaze worn
- Acquisition notes
- Egypt Exploration Fund
- Additional IDs
Miscellaneous number: 1975-39 (Accession Number)