- Museum number
Horizontal table clock; spring-driven movement; going-train with fusee; strike and quarter-trains with standing barrels; going train with verge escapement and balance; quarter train with count wheel on front plate and dial on back-plate to show last quarter struck; pin on quarter count-wheel releases striking train, whose count-wheel is mounted on back-plate; dial plate with three enamelled silver dials; largest shows hours I-XII, 13-24, quarters and minutes (each fifth indicated); upper dial shows day of month and left dial shows day of week with deity and planetary signs; age and phase of moon and month with zodiac indicated in aperture; square gilded brass case with glazed sides and two bells on base plate.
- Production date
Length: 5.75 inches (square)
- Curator's comments
- The following text is the entry for this object from the unpublished catalogue of pre-pendulum clocks by John Leopold, former Assistant Keeper of Horology at the Museum. This information is unedited and should be used accordingly.
SQUARE HORIZONTAL TABLE CLOCK, BY GEORGIUS SCHRADI.
Complicated dial; quarter striking.
South German, 2nd quarter 17th century.
Ilbert No. 327 N: ex Webster 9 May --- (almost certainly 1935).
Baillie 2 (1947) 286.
Exhib.cat. London 1958 no.5.
Cat.Ilbert (1958) no. 260.
Engraved on the back plate: "GEORGIVS * SCHRADI". Scratched on the inside of the hinged base, twice: "853 A wd/-/-" (probably Percy Webster's code, see History).
Square horizontal case made of copper and brass, gilded all over except the upper part of the inside of the band. Due to heavy re-gilding the details of the construction are difficult to ascertain.
The band is made of copper strip, bent at three corners and brazed at the fourth (at VIII). Each side has a large aperture covered with glass, each held in place by a cast brass ring secured by two screws; these glazed panels have been added subsequently (see conversions). The band is surrounded at top and bottom by profiled brass rings (probably built up out of four parts each), held in place by rivets. The top of the uppermost ring is decorated with stipple-engraving.
The brass base is hinged to the lower ring of the band, and has two apertures for the bells: each is screwed to a brass bell-stand which is screwed to the base. The base has a simple revolving catch. Four turned feet are riveted to the corners of the hinged base; they date from the 18th century (see Conversions, one foot is a later replacement).
The dial-plate is a gilded copper plate with four turned brass feet, which are pinned to the front plate of the movement. There are three subsidiary dials and three apertures.
All three subsidiary dials are of silver, marked and decorated with champ-levé enamel; they are surounded by gilded brass rings, dials and rings both being riveted to the dial-plate. The larger dial is for minutes and twelve hours. Its ring is marked 5 - 60 and I - IIII (these figures are filled with black wax). The silver dial is marked I - XII with half-hour marks, and 13 - 24. Above the main dial is the dial for the date; its scale is divided 1 - 31. The small dial is for the weekdays and is marked with the names and symbols of the planets, in the order of the weekdays: SOL, LVNA, MARS, MERCVRI, IVPITER, VENVS, SATVR. On all dials the markings are in black enamel; the dial-centres (decorated with draperies, birds, buterflies, flowers and fruits) and the figures of the planets are enameled in translucent blue, green and brown. All enameled surfaces are now heavily lacquered. All dials have gilded brass hands, those for the hours and minutes being 18th century replacements.
The key-hole aperture shows the phase and age of the moon (the gilded lunar disc under it is marked 1 - 29 and X). The two rectangular apertures near the edge show the name of the month and the symbol for the sign of the zodiac; these are engraved on the gilded calendar ring under the dial plate. On the calendar ring the names of the months, in latin, are filled with black wax. The reverse of this ring is engraved with the months and signs for September to January, but in clockwise order (incorrect).
The corner-pieces of the dial plate are engraved with leafy tendrils and there is a decorative border around the calender-aperture.
Movement and dial slide into the case from the top and are secured by two steel revolving latches (see Conversions).
The movement is largely made of brass, gilded all over except in the central portion under the dial. There are four turned pillars; they are screwed to the back plate with ornamental brass nuts, and pinned under the dial.
Many of the wheels have been filed or turned down, and are now considerably thinner than original.
── ├ ║ 54 50 54
minutes ← 12 │ ║ ── ── ── 19 (x 2)
│ ║ 6 5 6
24 ┐ │
── │ 8 16 ┘
weekdays ← 56 │ ── ──
├ 48 48 → hours
10 10 10 6 ┘
─── ── ── ───────
120 10 10 62 60
↓ ↓ ↓
calendar date moon
Great wheel: split fusee, 6 3/4 turns, 22 ratchet teeth for winding. Screwed steel fusee-hook. The fusee has been severely re-cut but was always for chain. Turned hinge-block for the stopwork, screwed through the plate.
Barrel: both caps have raised centres and are pinned over four lugs (on the back-side one broken and three repaired). Sideway hooking for the chain. The spring now hooked into a hole in the wall, but the caps retain the holes for a bar. Arbor has a brass mantle with stud for hooking, but retains the angled slot of the original hooking. Spring not original. The barrel, which has very little gilding, may be a replacement; the arbor is probably original.
Brass set-up wheel, 18 ratchet teeth. Brass click; the ornament of the click has been extended with a piece of a later watch-cock.
Contrate wheel: new (arbor original).
Scape wheel: new. Potence and counter-potence screwed. The cock has been heightened by adding a new neck (screwed on both sides). Hog-bristle regulator later; its scale is ornamented very similar to the date-aperture on the dial.
The wheel driving the minute-wheel and the hourwheel are of steel, all other wheels of brass. The wheels for date and moon are restorations (see Commentary), but their arbors, with steel discs for friction-fit, are original as is the small wheel of 10 on the date-wheel arbor. The central assembly (6-24-48) is entirely new.
The lunar disc, the calender ring and its last idler pinion are recessed in the dial plate. The two idler pinions for the calender are screwed to the dial plate; the weekdays-wheel is now loosely riveted in the hole of its dial. The minute-hand wheel sits under a bridge to prevent rubbing of the hour-wheel.
The following wheels are friction-tight on their arbors, in order that the hands can be adjusted: the assembly 48-16 on the great wheel arbor, and the lunar wheel on its arbor. The hand for the weekdays is carried on a round peg in the hollow arbour of the wheel, thus providing friction-fit. Originally the date-wheel was friction-tight on its arbor, so that the calendar could be adjusted.
Quarter striking train.
60 50 45 40
── ── ── ──
6 5 5 5
Great wheel: split arbor, 22 ratchet teeth for winding. The arbor retains the angled slot for the original hooking of the spring, but the arbor now has a brass mantle with a steel hook. Cased spring (the spring later) with half-slot for the original hooking; hooking now through a square hole in the wall.
Second wheel: 10 lifting pins. This arbor carries the count-disc (under the dial) and the hand for the indicator dial (on the back plate).
Fourth wheel: stud for locking.
Detends steel, with ornamental brass gate (dovetailed and screwed from the inside, repaired). Hammer arbor, spring and stop replaced.
The indicator dial on the back plate is now engraved; originally it probably had a snap-in silver ring. The hand for this dial is a replacement.
Unwarned striking with overlift off the lifting pins and random locking on the fourth wheel.
Hour striking train.
56 ┌ 48 45 40
── │ ── ── ──
7 ┤ 6 5 5
12-hour ← 52
Great wheel: split arbor, 24 ratchet teeth for winding. Arbor with stud for hooking but retains the angled slot for the original hooking. The wall has two square holes but the spring is now again hooked in the original half slot. Spring not original.
Second wheel: 6 lifting pins. The pinion-of-report is a lantern of 4 cut into the end of the arbor.
Fourth wheel: stud near arbor for locking.
Fly: heavy fly.
Countwheel: steel wheel with brass disc.
Detends steel, with ornamental brass gate (dovetailed and screwed from the inside, repaired). The brass indexing arm is a replacement.
Unwarned striking with overlift off the lifting pins and random locking on the fourth wheel.
The method of securing the movement in the case shows that the glazed panels are a subsequent addition. The movement is locked in position by revolving latches, one locking over a stud in the case, the other has a tooth which catches in a hole in the case. The second latch is a replacement: the movement plate under it retains the notch to accomodate a similar stud inside the case, but this had to be removed when the glass was fitted. The present feet probably form part of the same modernisation of the clock.
Three filled holes and circular rub-marks show that this clock has been converted to balance spring. Presumably at the same time the height of the cock was altered, and the new scape wheel fitted.
The glazing, the new feet and the balance spring probably all date from the early 18th century. When the wheels were made thinner and several wheels of the under-dial work discarded, is not clear; however, both were probably done in order to reduce the power needed to drive the clock, and so it may all be part of a single conversion. The minute- and the hour-hand are mid-18th century.
The restoration of the clock was probably designed by Percy Webster. This involved mainly removing the traces of the balance spring, fitting a new regulator and repairing the cock. The cock now consists of three separate pieces, of which the foot and the table are original (compare the flourishes of the dial for the quarter striking). Presumably at the same time the outer case was re-gilded.
Great wheel - 1 rev. in 4 hours.
Dial: weekdays - 1 rev. in 7 days.
date - 1 rev. in 31 days (with date-wheel 60: 30 days).
moon - 1 rev. in 30 days (with lunar wheel 59: 29½ days).
calendar - 1 rev. in 372 days (with date-wheel 60: 360 days).
Clock: 142 x 143 mm.
Height - 100 mm
Movement: 114.5 x 115 mm.
Distance between the plates - 33 mm.
HISTORY AND PROVENANCE.
Ilbert collection, Ilbert's ledger no.327 N: bought from Webster 9 May --- (almost certainly 1935). The scratched inscriptions on the inside of the hinged base probably are Webster's: in his code the amount marked would be £ 10/-/-.
Presented by Mr.Gilbert Edgar C.B.E. in 1958; reg. CAI 2114.
No maker of this name has been recorded and no other work by him seems to survive. The high quality of the enamel, with several colours in a in a single cloison, suggests that he had access to the silversmiths of Augsburg, where this technique was highly developed. The use of thick gilded brass wheels also suggests contact with Augsburg.
The reconstruction of the under-dial work is substantially correct; the empty hole between the wheel driving the minute wheel and the date wheel is a srew-hole of no clear purpose. However, the wheel-count of the original wheels is likely to have been different: the lunar wheel will have had 59 teeth in stead of 60 (improving the lunation to 29½ days), and the date-wheel 60 in stead of 62 (producing a month of 30 days and a better year of 360 days).
Springs: app. none original.
Going: 22.5 x .4 mm.
1/4 striking: 23.5 x .4 mm.
Full striking: 22.5 x .5 mm.
Hinge is at the 6 o'clock position: unusual?
For the other early chains see 1888,12-1,111 and 131: is the Schradi-clock also Augsburg?
BIBLIOGRAPHY (Pauline Wholey – 2019)
Baillie 2 (1947) G.H.Baillie, Watchmakers and Clockmakers of the World 2nd ed (London 1947).
London 1958 Pendulum to Atom, Goldsmiths Hall, London, 1958. For this exhib. see: HJ 100 no.1199 (August 1958) 491; HJ 100 no.1202 (November 1958) 711 718; HJ 100 no.1203 (December 1958) 816 820 (tribute to Coole at the end).
Ilbert (1958) Auction cat. coll. Courtenay A. Ilbert, London, Christie, 6 7 November 1958.
- Not on display
- Latest: 3 (Aug 2015)
- Acquisition date
- Acquisition notes
- The Ilbert Collection of clocks, prints and other related material was destined to be sold at Christie's auction house on 6th-7th November 1958. As a result of the generous donation of funds by Gilbert Edgar CBE the sale was cancelled and the material purchased privately from the beneficiaries of the Ilbert Estate.NL1Ilbert's watches were then acquired with further funds from Gilbert Edgar CBE, public donations and government funds. These were then registered in the series 1958,1201.
- Britain, Europe and Prehistory
- Registration number
- Additional IDs
Previous owner/ex-collection number: CAI.2114 (Ilbert Collection)
Previous owner/ex-collection number: N327 (Ilbert Ledger)