- Museum number
Pottery: red-figured cup.
INTERIOR: tondo and zone. Tondo: Peleus and Thetis. Thetis (ΘΗΤΙΣ) is moving to the right, but turns her head back to the left. She wears a chiton and a cloak over her shoulders. There is a red tie in her hair that ends in a loop at the back, the ends trailing over her left shoulder. She also has an elaborate white stephane in her hair that has a chequerboard pattern at the front (some of the added white has been chipped away to form the darker squares) and lotus blossoms attached to the upper contour. Her right arm was bent down towards Peleus (now
missing), her left holds up her long black hair (done with additional relief lines on the black) over her left shoulder. Peleus must have been wrestling her about the middle: all we have of him is perhaps a reserved area beneath Thetis' chiton hem and the end of his name ([ΠΕΛΕV]Σ). On the right was an altar with a black ovolo moulding at the top and a single step base. On top of the altar is the forepart of a ketos. The spiky ruff, an ear and part of the body with flippers and dorsal fin are preserved: the upper section of its body is covered with scales bounded below by a dotted stripe. On the left is part of the body of a snake, its skin provided with a row of dots on one side of the median line: this represents one of Thetis' transformations. The ground line takes the form of a small reserved exergue.
Zone: Nereids fleeing to Triton and Nereus. At the left handle is Triton (ΤΡΙΤΩΝ). He has a white beard and long white hair tied in a pony-tail at the back; his hair has receded at the front, but there is a little tuft of three curls on top. He wears a short chiton over his human part and a red fillet in his hair. Little is preserved of his piscine part, but it was scaly with an ovolo-like lower edge and there was a fringed fin at the top. He holds a dolphin up in his left hand and, across his body in his right hand, a sceptre with a lotus finial, striped shaft (groups of dilute glaze lines) and a pointed end. Running up to him from the right comes a Nereid (KVMΑΘΕΑ) in chiton and himation (black border). Her right hand is outstretched in appeal for help, her left fingers her long hair over her left shoulder in the manner of Thetis on the tondo. Her hair is tied with a red loop, and she has a reserved stephane with a battlement peak and an earring. Behind her sits Nereus (NHPEVΣ) on a high-backed chair with a leather cover over it (zigzag decoration; key-hole fringe). He wears a long chiton and a himation (black border) and his long white hair is tied up at the back with a red band (the red has smudged over the top of the white in the area of the tuft at the back). He holds a dolphin up in his left hand and in his right hand a sceptre with a lotus head, striped shaft (pairs of relief lines) and square end across his body. Running up to him are two Nereids. The first wore a chiton and had her left hand stretched out in front and her right hand back behind her. Her chiton has a decoration of crosses and a border of small vertical lines. Of the second Nereid, only a foot under a long garment and an outstretched hand are preserved. Her name was written behind her, Galene ([Γ]AΛENH). Continuing clockwise, around the lower part of the zone run three more Nereids, away from Nereus and towards Triton's back. Only part of the head and one shoulder of the first, perhaps Pasithea ([.. .] ΘEA), are preserved. She wore a chiton and a himation. Her hair is tied up with a red loop (triple tails fly out behind) and she has a stephane with a battlement peak and an earring. In front of her runs Kymo (ΚVMΩ). Her chest is frontal and so was her head, as the remains of her jaw line indicates. Part of the hair framing her head is visible on the left. She wore an elaborately decorated chiton enriched at the bottom by trefoils linked in an arcade pattern and a border of reserved circles, which at the bottom are dotted and at the neck are almost squares). She also has a cloak draped around her shoulders and a necklace with a central pendant. The last figure, behind Triton, is Glauke (written ΓΛVKH) of whom only part of the head and the tips of the toes of her backward right foot are preserved. She had a red fie in her hair and wears a reserved stephane with a battlement peak and an earring.
Border between tondo and zone: alternating blackened cross-squares and three units of stopt maeander (anticlockwise, five-stroke). Below the offset lip is a reserved band.
EXTERIOR: Herakles and Kyknos; Diomedes and Aineas.
Side A (upper): Herakles and Kyknos. On the far left stood Athena to the right: only a foot and the lower part of her chiton and himation (dilute glaze band at hem) are preserved, together with the end of her spear. In front of her wide-eyed Herakles (ΗEΡΑΚΛΕΟΣ) storms to the right, clad in belted lion-skin and short chiton. The lion-skin is knotted at the neck and has a band of dilute glaze along its edges. He has a Boeotian shield on his left arm and thrusts down with a spear into the shoulder of his opponent. His left foot is in mid air, only two of the toes of his right foot, seen frontally, make contact with the ground. His opponent, Kyknos (KVKNOΣ), clad in short chiton, cuirass, greaves and Corinthian helmet is down on his left knee, his right leg outstretched and seen in three-quarter view. He has attempted an overhead thrust with his spear at Herakles' waist, but the spear has broken on the invulnerable lion-skin. He bleeds from wounds to his chest and right thigh and his grasp on the shield on his left arm is slipping. Behind Kyknos, Ares (APHOΣ) presses forward. He is clad in short chiton, cuirass, greaves and Corinthian helmet and has, at his left hip, a sword in a scabbard around which is entwined a snake. He is seen in three-quarter back view, the right leg seen fully from behind. He has a shield (device: bull's head) and thrusts forward with a spear, held in his right hand, at Herakles.
Side Β (lower): Diomedes and Aineas.
On the far left stands the calm figure of Athena (AΘHN[A]). She wears a chiton (dilute glaze folds) and himation and is equipped with an Attic helmet, shield and spear, which she holds vertically. In front of her is Diomedes (ΔΙΟMΗΔΗΣ) in short chiton, cuirass and Corinthian helmet. He has a red baldric crossing from his right shoulder to his left hip and holds a sword low in his right hand, his left arm is protected by a shield seen from the inside. There is part of what seems to be a fold of drapery between the sword hilt and his leg; if it is from a chlamys, the artist has forgotten to paint any of it at shoulder level. Aineas (AINEAΣ) is down on his left knee and his right leg was stretched out to the left (cf. Kyknos on side A). He is clad in short chiton, cuirass, greaves and Corinthian helmet. He has a spear stuck in his chest, the upper part of the shaft has snapped. His right arm is raised over his head, as if attempting to chop off the spearhead with his sword. The shield on his left arm begins to slip from his grasp (cf. Kyknos on side A). The pupil of his eye has slid upwards and his head droops. In the background behind him is
Aphrodite (ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΗΣ), dressed in chiton, himation, sakkos (black stripe) and earring. She has appeared suddenly to rescue Aineas, and the tail folds of her cloak still bear the imprint of her passage to the left, although she is already beginning to move back to the right, as the heel of her left foot (below Aineas' greaved knee) reveals. She has her right hand under Aineas' right armpit and her left reaches for his left armpit, as she endeavours to lift him, her head slightly bowed with the effort. Under the handles: floral complex of three palmettes with tendrils ending in spirals; the palmette under the handle has an elongated central frond (rounded in one case, pointed in the other).
Ground line: blackened cross-square alternating with six units of stopt maeander (five-stroke, anticlockwise).
All contours done with relief line (including hair); dilute glaze for minor interior markings.
- Production date
Diameter: 14 centimetres (of exterior ground line)
Diameter: 12 centimetres (of tondo)
Diameter: 26 centimetres (of zone)
Diameter: 32 centimetres
Width: 42.40 centimetres
- Curator's comments
CVA British Museum 9
Bibliography: E. Gerhard, Archäologischer Anzeiger, zur Archäologischen Zeitung 24 (1866) 203*; P. Gardner, The Journal of Philology 7 (1877) 215-26, pls. A and B; Hartwig M 585 note and 623-4 no. 17; J.D. Beazley, JHS 1910, 63 no. 32; AV 76, 72; Hoppin ii, 143 no. 20; ARV 128, 94; ARV2 192, 106; Bloesch FAS 137 no. 4; Beazley Kleophrades-Maler 6, 16 and 29 no. 80, pl. 32, 1 (detail of B); Para 341; J. Boardman, GettyMusJ 1 (1974) 7-14; LIMC iv sv Glauke I no. 3, pl. 159 (detail of zone) and sv Galene I no. 2; Beazley Add2 189; LIMC vi sv Nereus no. 71, pi. 524 (detail of zone).
Attributed to Douris by Hartwig and to Kleophrades by F. Hauser (in F.R. ii 228); Beazley gave it to his Kleophrades Painter as a 'later' work, comparing it with the amphora with Ajax and Hektor in Wurzburg (ARV2 182, 5; Kleophrades-Maler 16). The fullest discussion of the cup is Boardman's, which comments on all iconographic matters as well as the drawing.
Beazley attributed four other cups (AKV2 191-2) to the Kleophrades Painter, two as early works (potted by Kleophrades), two as 'later' works and one as a 'late' piece. M. Robertson has suggested that a sixth cup (Agora Ρ 2754: Stele 125-9) might be a very early work by the Kleophrades Painter, but this seems improbable. Beazley asked whether the Boot Painter (ARV2 192 and 821) might not be a late phase of the Kleophrades Painter. There are clearly strong connections (note especially the figure of Athena on side Β of this cup), but it seems more likely that the Boot Painter was a pupil of the Kleophrades Painter in his later years (cf. M. Robertson op. cit. 128 note 22). There also appear to be potting connections between both painters and the late products of the Brygan Circle.
The cup has an offset lip inside only: the stem may have been of type Β or type C. Bloesch placed the cup in his 'Eleusisgruppe'. For another cup by the same painter with an offset lip inside only see Getty 77.ΑΕ.21,18: Μ. Robertson, Getty Vases 1  53 fig. 6. One of the 'later' cups (ARV2 192, 105; Bloesch FAS 132 no. 14) is of type C cup with a fully offset lip. Euphronios' giant type C cup with fully offset lip in the Getty, decorated by Onesimos, also has a zone around the tondo, and a reexamination of such type C cups suggests that Euphronios potted an early series and was followed by Brygos, who may have been the potter of the Kleophrades Painter's cups with offset lips, both inside only and fully offset (see further D. Williams, Getty Vases 5, 1991, 47-9; and also on Vase D1 and Vase E65.
On Peleus and Thetis see X. Krieger, Der Kampf zwischen Peleus und Thetis in der griechischen Vasenmalerei (Diss. Munster 1973); Schefold Sagen 95-102. On the ketos see J. Boardman in L. Kahil, C. Auge and P. Linant de Bellefonds (eds.), Iconographie Classique
et Identites Regionales (BCH Supplement xiv, Paris 1986) 447-53; J. Boardman in Monsters and demons in the ancient and medieval worlds. Papers presented in honor of E. Porada (Mainz 1987) 73-84. For a frontally-headed Nereid at the seizing of Thetis compare a stamnos by the Berlin Painter (ARV2 209, 161). Frontal faces are not very common in the work of the Kleophrades Painter (ARV2 182, 6; 188, 67; 191, 102; and perhaps Atlas on the volute-krater, now Getty Mus. 77.AE.11 - see A. Greifenhagen, Neue Fragmente des Kleophradesmalers [Heidelberg 1972] pl. 25). For elaborate stephanai compare Makron's skyphos: London Ε 140 (ARV2 459, 3).
The arrangement of the figures in the zone is, it would seem, not carefully worked out. The placement of Triton at the left and Nereus at the top works well, but the other two cardinal positions are not significantly stressed (contrast the Getty Onesimos potted by Euphronios: D. Williams, Getty Vases 5, 1991, 49-56 and 61).
On Herakles and Kyknos see Schefold GuH 136-8 and Urkönige 176-7. On Diomedes and Aineias see Schefold GuH 218-9; F. Canciani in LIMC i sv Aineias esp. 384-5 and 394; J. Boardman and C. Vafopoulou-Richardson in LIMC iii sv Diomedes I esp. 400 and 408; Schefold Sagen 187-9. For a broken spear cf. a lekythos in Cleveland (W.G. Moon and L. Berge [eds.], Greek Vase-Painting in Midwestern Collections [Chicago 1979] no. 105). On the idea of trying to chop off a spearhead with a slashing blow of the sword see B.F. Cook, MetMusJ 24 (1989) 57-8.
For the tomb-group see BM Cat Terracottas 26 and BM Cat Glass 1157. The sepulchral chamber contained three glass vessels (BM Cat Glass 133 and 261; and GR 1864.10-7.59, now in Istanbul), five terracottas (BM Cat Terracottas 232, 267, 281, 282 and 926) and three black glaze vessels (GR 1864.10-7.1612 and 1620; and 1949.2-20.23). Higgins refers to the vase as a 'family heirloom'.
Attributed to Fikellura grave 81, based on evidence from Biliotti's Kamiros diary, Kamiros tomb list, British Museum register, departmental Kamiros index card. Description in Biliotti's Kamiros diary: Cylix black glaze, red human figures inside and outside (1 fragment).
Attributions to find-spots are based on (1) Alfred Biliotti’s diary kept during excavations at Kamiros between November 1863 and June 1864, which records the contents of two votive deposits and over 300 graves; (2) entries in the Museum Register, often stipulating the find-spots of individual objects excavated by Biliotti; (3) the Kamiros tomb list, produced around the same time as his entries in the Museum Register. It lists the contents of each grave and votive deposit, along with their corresponding registration numbers; (4) the Kamiros index cards, written by Donald Bailey in the 1960’s. These mainly record the contents of graves from the Fikellura cemetery and are organised according to tomb group. All archives are kept in the Department of Greece and Rome. In addition, Reynold Higgins’ Catalogue of the Terracottas in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1954) has been checked for attributions to the Fikellura cemetery.
- Not on display
- Made up from fragments; foot missing, together with large sections of the bowl and part of the rim. Small holes have been drilled in to the edges of some fragments to key the earlier plaster restoration.
- Associated events
- Associated Event: Peleus seizes Thetis
- Acquisition date
- Greek and Roman
- Registration number