- Museum number
Imborivungu (owl-pipe), voice-disguiser; made of human bone; leg bone with carved wooden human face at one end covered with mud, human hair, metal eyes; hole carved at centre of bone; covered with red, green and yellow checked cloth; pink and red glass beads around hole; blue and red beads near end opposite head; two strings of blue and white beads loose on either end.
Height: 21 centimetres
Width: 8 centimetres
Depth: 7.50 centimetres
- Curator's comments
- C Ardouin: The identification of this voice disguiser imborivungu (or owl-pipe) as probably made of human bone is based on available ethnographic information which suggests that such ritual objects originally used to be made out of human femur, normally the femur of the ancestor of the minimal tar (territorial group). Later the imborivungu were made also out of brass. The identification is therefore pending confirmation by scientific test.
Verdon, M. (1983). Segmentation among the Tiv: A Reappraisal American Ethnologist, Vol. 10, No. 2 (May, 1983)
Lincoln B., (1975). "The Religious Significance of Women's Scarifications among the Tiv", in Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 45, No.3 (1975)
Downes, R. M. (1971). Tiv Religion. lbadan University Press, Ibadan
Bohannan P., (1957). Justice and Judgment among the TIV - International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
Bohannan, L. and P. (1953). The Tiv of Central Nigeria, London, International African Institute
East, R. (1939). Akiga's Story. Oxford University Press, London
Abraham, R. C. (1933). The Tiv People. Lagos: Govt. Printer
M Caygill: See Ethdoc 241 - Notes on Tiv Cult Objects by R C Abraham, Anthropological Officer, N.P. Nigeria, 1 October 1931. Includes references to human sacrifice.
- Not on display
- Acquisition date
- Africa, Oceania and the Americas
- Registration number