- Museum number
Digital photograph (colour); view of engraved rock art on a rock face (sandstone), showing a cow and an unidentified figure. Centre: outlined (polished) cow upright facing right. Curved, upturned horns, eye, snout and hooves marked. Three vertical grooves running through the body. Two vertical grooves through neck (collar?). Horn to the right cut off by stone breaking. Pastoral period. Lower centre: outline (pecked) of unidentified figure (therianthrope?) Upright facing front. Cat-like ears, arms bent over waist, hand to the left holding (stick?). Partially superimposed to cow. Wadi Mathendous, Libya.
- Production date
21 February 2006 (date digitized)
March 1998 (original photograph)
File size: 119 megabytes
Resolution: 300 dots per inch
- Curator's comments
- The cow can be ascribed to the Pastoral period and style. Collars and cowbells are a undoubtedly an evidence for domestication, and appear occasionally in Messak rock art as well as in other areas with engravings or paintings throughout Libya. The superimposed figure is a later addition to the panel and could imitate the nearby depictions of cat-like figures which are common in this stretch of Wadi Mathendous were the figures are located.
Wadi Mathendous is one of the main dry riverbeds on the southern edge of the Messak Plateau in southwest Libya, near the borders between Algeria and Niger. That plateau, which runs southwest-northeast through the Libyan province of Fezzan, is divided in two by the Tilemsin pass, which defines two smaller plateaus (Settafet to the north and Mellet to the south). Throughout these plateaus, numerous dry riverbeds run to the east into Murzuq erg. Rather than a single dry riverbed, Wadi Mathendous can define a wide area which includes the In Habeter (the middle course of Wadi Mathendous) and tributaries as the Wadi Tilizaghen. The valley and its tributaries are full with tens of thousands of rock art engravings –only a few paintings have been located insofar-, mostly depicted in vertical rocks. As a whole, Wadi Mathendous and its surrounding area constitutes the core of the Messak rock art. In this case, the engravings are placed in the Wadi Mathendous itself.
The Messak rock art has been known since Heinrich Barth’s expedition in 1850, although it wasn’t until 1932 when the engravings were systematically studied by Leo Frobenius. In more recent times the area has been extensively studied by Pesce (1969), Graziosi (1970) and Jelinek (1984, 1985). Figures appear both isolated and within complex scenes which include engraved life-size elephants, giraffes, crocodiles, buffaloes and figures which mix human and animal features (therianthropes) along with numerous figures of more modern periods as horses and camels. Most of the engravings belong to the so called Bubalus style, but Tazina, Pastoral, Horse and Camel styles are also well represented. The area is home to some of the oldest engravings in the Sahara desert (around 10,000 years old) and some of the most popular depictions in Saharan rock art, as the “Sparring Cats” or the so-called “Apollo of the Garamantes”.
- Not on display
- Acquisition date
- Africa, Oceania and the Americas
- Registration number
- Additional IDs
Previous owner/ex-collection number: LIBMES0040002 (TARA number)