John Taylor is the curator of the 'Journey through the afterlife: ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead' exhibition, a hugely popular programme that opened at the British Museum in November, 2010. In this article he expands on one of the most popular and fascinating objects to have appeared: The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead.
What is a Book of the Dead?
The 'Journey through the afterlife: ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead' exhibition was the result of years of work behind the scenes in planning, preparation and research. It was exciting to be able to focus on these special documents and to have the rare opportunity to display such a variety of them.
'Book of the Dead' is a modern term for a collection of magical spells that the Egyptians used to help them get into the afterlife. They imagined the afterlife as a kind of journey you had to make to get to paradise – but it was quite a hazardous journey so you'd need magical help along the way.
The Book of the Dead isn't a finite text – it's not like the Bible, it's not a collection of doctrine or a statement of faith or anything like that – it's a practical guide to the next world, with spells that would help you on your journey.
The 'book' is usually a roll of papyrus with lots and lots of spells written on it in hieroglyphic script. They usually have beautiful coloured illustrations as well. They would have been quite expensive so only wealthy, high-status people would have had them. Depending on how rich you were, you could either go along and buy a ready-made papyrus which would have blank spaces for your name to be written in, or you could spend a bit more and probably choose which spells you wanted.
Some of the spells are to make sure you can control your own body after death. The ancient Egyptians believed that a person was made up of different elements: body, spirit, name, heart, they're all embodiments of a person, and they were afraid that these elements would disperse when you died. So there are a lot of spells to make sure you don't lose your head or your heart, that your body doesn't decay, as well as other spells about keeping alive by breathing air, having water to drink, having food to eat.
There are also spells about protecting yourself because the ancient Egyptians expected to be attacked on the journey to the afterlife by snakes, crocodiles, insects – an idea very much based on the threats they knew in real life only much more frightening and much more dangerous.
As well as the animals, you could be attacked by gods or demons who served the gods. In the next world there are a lot of gods who are guarding gateways that you have to get through, and if you don't give the right answers to their questions at the gates, they can attack you because they have knives and snakes in their hands.
Without the correct spells to protect you, you could be punished in a variety of ways: you could be put on to the slaughter block, you could be decapitated, or you could be turned upside down (which meant your digestive process worked in reverse so you had to eat faeces and drink urine forever!)
The worst thing that could happen was what was called the second death. This meant you were killed and your spirit couldn't come back and so you would have no afterlife at all.
It was a world of great fear that they believed they were going into, and the Book of the Dead provided guidance and protection on this journey.
The 'Journey through the afterlife: ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead' exhibition opened at the British Museum in November, 2010. Find out more about Ancient Egypt at the British Museum.