What just happened?

To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Joint Middle East Department/Palestine Exploration Fund lecture series
The walls of medieval Ascalon

Thursday 7 November,
Stevenson Lecture Theatre
Free, just drop in, limited seating

Recommend this event

Ascalon is perhaps best known as one of the cities of the Philistines mentioned in the Bible, but in the Middle Ages it was a strongly fortified town, controlling the routes between Syria and Egypt.

Unoccupied since the mid-13th century, extensive excavations have taken place there since the late 1980s by the Leon Levy expedition.

Denys Pringle, Cardiff University, joined them in 2008 for a collaborative project to study these massive walls. Using the results and setting them in the context of significant events of the period, Professor Pringle will unravel the complex history of the medieval fortifications, from their original construction through the numerous phases of construction, destruction, rebuilding and modification.

You might also like


Ascalon: Photograph of the Medieval Ramparts. Courtesy of Denys Pringle, Cardiff University.