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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


drawn (Scope note)

This term is a generic term used in the BM to cover all methods of hand-drawing on paper in the Western tradition; it includes watercolour, pen and ink, and graphite. The term 'painted' is used for finished works on paper in the Asiatic schools.