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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


painted (Scope note)

A term that covers all types of painting in oils and fresco, and also finished works on silk or paper of the schools of Asia. For Western traditions of art, the word 'drawn' has been used for works on paper, including watercolours. N.B. The term is also used in the context of ceramics, where the object is described as, e.g.: 'painted in overglaze enamels', or 'decorated in overglaze enamels' (with the resulting Techniques 'glazed' and painted' and Material 'enamel'). For ceramics in the Greek and Roman Department, the term painted is also to be used in the sense of ‘decorated’. The composition of the ‘paint’, which can often be described as a ‘slip’ is irrelevant. Thus the term 'slip-painted' is not used for ceramics in that Department, and 'slipped' or 'painted' are used instead.