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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


the three friends of winter (Scope note)

In Asian art, the grouping of pine, bamboo and prunus is referred to in this way because these are the only plants to be seen in the depths of winter. The term should only be used when the three plants occur together in this particular context, rather than individually.