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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Bengal (Scope note)

This term covers undivided Bengal, now divided between the sovereign country of Bangladesh and the state of the Union of India, now known as West Bengal. Between 1947 and 1971, eastern Bengal was known as East Pakistan. After 1971, it was known as Bangladesh.