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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


London (Scope note)

The area described as 'London' has changed a number of times during its history. 'London' is used on this database to refer to the Greater London area established by the 1963 Act of Parliament and implemented in 1965. It includes 32 London Boroughs plus the City of London. Fullest available place details are indexed for archaeological findspots and in a few cases for places of production. Topographical views and other representations are normally indexed simply as 'London'. However, views of places in the former county of Middlesex and those parts of Essex, Kent and Surrey which were incorporated into Greater London in 1963, are indexed under the local name, e.g. 'Richmond', 'Harrow'. Narrower terms (streets, major buildings, etc.) are entered in the Description field.