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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Egypt (Scope note)

The term 'nome' refers to an administrative district of Ancient Egypt. The term nome (from the Greek “nomos” meaning district) came into usage from the Ptolemaic period (late 4th century BC onwards). This name replaced the original Egyptian district name “sepat”. The nome remained an administrative district until the early 4th century AD when smaller units, “pagi”, were formed. Over the years the borders of these nomes fluctuated but were mostly centred upon a town after which the nome was usually named, e.g. Memphis was the main town of the Memphite Nome. N.B. For places n Egypt, the term 'Gebel' is used in preference to 'Jebel' to reflect local pronounciation. For places in Sudan and the Middle East, the term 'Jebel' is used in preference.