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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


flake (Scope note)

In stone artefact terminology a flake is the product detached when a hammer is used to modify another piece or nodule of stone. Many flakes are simply waste products (debitage) produced during knapping; some may subsequently be modified by retouch and are then defined and named as various types of tools.