What just happened?

To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


sealing (Scope note)

Term used to describe the material either attached directly to a document (and usually made of clay, wax or metal) or used to close a package, jar or door etc (in which case it may or may not be impressed with a seal). In the Roman period and Medieval Europe, the term refers to items which were for official use by the military or judicial authorities, presumably for sealing bales, boxes, doors, lids, writing tablets and so on. When the sealing is impressed the record should also include a reference to it as a seal impression.