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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


negative (Scope note)

Negatives can be made of glass or from a variety of polymers. Modern ones tend to be polyester based or cellulose acetate butyrate but the older ones, if not made of glass, are often cellulose acetate or cellulose nitrate which are not very stable and have many associated degradation problems (acidic off-gassing, fire hazard, warping, crazing, brittleness, stickiness, etc.). The Material entered should be 'glass' or 'plastic' unless it is identified, in which case a more specific term should be entered.