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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


mineral (Scope note)

Minerals are generally defined in this thesaurus as naturally occurring chemical compounds. Minerals have a 'chemical' name (e.g. 'lead sulphide') and a 'mineral' name (e.g. 'galena') either of which may have been used in the documentation. It has been decided that the 'chemical' name will be the Broad Term. In order to broaden the scope of searches, certain terms are under both 'mineral' and 'stone'. N.B. - Stalagmite and stalagtite are composed of secondary minerals, mainly calcium carbonate, and are closely linked to the formation of limestone. - The term ‘crystal’ refers to a solid material that has its molecules or atoms or ions in a repeating, ordered (geometric) arrangement. Many different minerals and metals are in crystalline state or form. Although in the absence of a more specific identification, the Material could therefore be 'metal' as well as 'mineral', it is assumed that the latter is more likely, and so the term 'mineral' is entered as a Material.