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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Judaean (Scope note)

The term is used in relation to objects produced in ancient Judaea under the Hasmonean (c. 170BC-37BC) and Herodian (37BC-95AD) dynasties and during the two Jewish revolts (The Jewish War 66AD-68AD and The Bar Kochba Revolt 132AD-135AD). From 301-201BC most of ancient Judaea was under Ptolemaic control; it was then under the Seleucids under Antiochus III Megas. By 40BC Judaea was almost entirely dominated by Rome, and the first king of the Herodian dynasty, Herod I, was appointed by a declaration of the Roman Senate. Coins minted under the Roman Prefects of Judaea ('the Procurators') have the period culture 'Roman Provincial', as do the later imperial coins minted in Judaean cities (e.g. Aelia Capitolina, the new Roman Jerusalem). The term is not used for the collections in the Department of Greek and Roman. If the object dates to the period before Judaea became a Roman province (about 6AD) the term 'Hellenistic' is used, and if after Rome takes over then the term 'Roman' is used.