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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Coptic (Scope note)

The term is used in the context of antiquities of a mainly Christian nature from Roman Egypt beginning from approximately 4thC and continuing into the Islamic Period down to the 12thC with diminishing application down to modern times. N.B. See also the terms 'Byzantine' and 'Late Antique' as these terms have also been used to describe textiles and other objects from Egypt from the same period.