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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Medieval (Scope note)

The term refers to the period from about AD 400 to about AD 1500. See also the Narrow Terms 'Early Medieval' and 'Late Medieval'. See also the terms ‘Late Roman’ or ‘Byzantine’. N.B. For all European coins, the term 'Medieval' (rather than the Narrow Terms 'Early Medieval' and 'Late Medieval') is used as a general term for the period c. 400 to c. 1500. Other term can also be entered, such as 'Burgundian'.