Neo-Babylonian Dynasty (Scope note)

Having previously been under the domination of their northerly neighbours, the Assyrians, native rule returned to Babylon in 626 BC, when Nabopolassar seized the throne. He was part of the coalition that would later destroy the Assyrian empire, and set the stage for the rise of the Babylonian empire. Perhaps the most famous king of the dynasty is his son Nebuchadnezzar, who in 598 BC captured Jerusalem and deported some of the population -- an event immortalised in the Bible. After a long and illustrious reign Nebuchadnezzar II died in 562 BC, to be followed by a series of kings with very short reigns. The empire fell in 539 BC when king Cyrus II of Persia overthrew Nabonidus, the last native ruler of Babylon.