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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Ottoman dynasty (Scope note)

1281-1924; Middle Eastern and European empire, centred from 1453 on Constantinople. For the period of the Bosnian garrison at Qasr Ibrim use Ottoman Dynasty. For Ottoman Qasr Ibrim use the date range of 1555-1914 unless a more specific date is known.