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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Roman Period (Scope note)

This term refers to the start of the Roman rule of Egypt in 30 BC to the Islamic Conquest in AD 641. Researchers seeking Byzantine material from Egypt should search under Roman Period, Late Antique as well as Coptic.