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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Athena/Minerva (Biographical details)

Athena/Minerva (deity; Roman; Greek; Etruscan; Female)

Also known as

Athena/Minerva; Athena; Minerva; Athene; Athena Dadouchos; Athena Lindia; Athena Parthenos; Athena Polias; Athena Promachos; Menrva; Pallas Athene; Pallas Nicephoras; Pallas Athena; Pallas


One of the twelve Olympian gods; goddess of wisdom and just causes; patron of many civilizing arts, domestic crafts and the city of Athens; daughter of Zeus/Jupiter (q.v.), she emerged fully armed from her father's head.
Pallas was a daughter of Triton and friend of Athena/Minerva (q.v.), with whom she sparred; one day Zeus/Jupiter (q.v.) intervened, standing in front of Athena with the aegid; Pallas, struck with fear, was not able to parry Athena's blow and was killed. In sorrow, Athena took the name of Pallas-Athena, carved a wooden statue of her friend (the Palladium) and placed it alongside Zeus. Athena is sometimes therefore referred to as Pallas in later depictions but these depications are in fact usually of Athena (i.e. a female figure with Corinthian helmet and shield).
Sometimes associated with the Zoroastrian deity Anahita (q.v.).