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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Emma Tourner Turner (Biographical details)

Emma Tourner Turner (British; Female; 1811 - 1892)

Also known as

Turner, Emma Tourner (Bequest spent during this period but items from the excavations continued to be registered as late as 2014 as the collection is fully digitised)


Miss Emma Tourner Turner of 65a St Giles, Oxford left a legacy of £2000 to the British Museum in 1892 '…for the purpose of excavation, exploration or survey of sites in Europe, Asia or Africa in furtherance of the study of the antiquities of Greece, Rome or Egypt or the Biblical Antiquities...'. (Probate copy of her will, dated 3, March 1892; see also the letter of her executor, John Power Hicks in the BM Central Archive, Original Papers). She seems to have lived most of her live, unmarried, at the family home in Oxford and is buried in St Sepulchre's cemetery in Jericho, Oxford. The BM was the single largest beneficiary under her will, some 10 % of the total of just under £20,000, but she also left money to various charities and hospitals (including the Radcliffe Infirmary) as well as to family and friends.

Three sites were explored on a large scale between 1893 and 1896. Amathus by A.H. Smith and John Myres (November 1893 to March 1894); Kourion by H.B. Walters (January-April 1895) and Enkomi by A.S. Murray, Percy Christian and A.H. Smith (March-September 1896). These were published in a summary fashion as Excavations in Cyprus (London, 1900; reprinted 1969).


For family background and biography, and images of her house in St Giles, Oxford and grave in St. Sepulchres Cemetery, Jericho, Oxford see: http://www.stsepulchres.org.uk/burials/turner_caroline.html.