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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


British School of Archaeology, Iraq (Biographical details)

British School of Archaeology, Iraq (institution/organisation; British; 1926; founded in)

Also known as

British School of Archaeology, Iraq; British Institute for the Study of Iraq; BISI


Founded with a constitution that allows it to also work in countries neighbouring Iraq, and implemented in the 1930s by M.E.L. Mallowan (q.v.) as he directed surveys and excavations in north-east Syria, again in the same area during the 1970s-1990s by David Oates (q.v.) and Joan Oates (q.v.) and Augusta McMahon, and by H.E.W. Crawford in Kuwait during the 1990s. During the 1970s and 1980s it operated in Iraq under the name of the British Archaeological Expedition to Iraq. The School supports a programme of research and publication on its fieldwork; publishes the journal 'Iraq' which is mainly dedicated to archaeological and Assyriological matters; offers travel grants; organises lectures and other events concerned with ancient and historical Iraq, and issues a newsletter.