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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


William Chaffers (Biographical details)

William Chaffers (dealer/auction house; academic/intellectual; British; Male; 1811 - 1892)

Also known as

Chaffers, William


Dealer in antiquities and ceramic historian.


Mark Westgarth, 'Dictionary of XIXc antique and curiosity dealers', 2009, p.78.