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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Imperial Porcelain Factory (Biographical details)

Imperial Porcelain Factory (manufacturer/factory; Russian; 1744; active)

Also known as

Imperial Porcelain Factory; State Porcelain Factory; Lomonosov Porcelain Factory


St Petersburg, Russia


Porcelain factory founded by Empress Elizabeth Petrovna (q.v.), daughter of Peter the Great (q.v.). Here Dmitri Vinogradov discovered the secret of porcelain, making this factory the first of its kind in Russia and the third in Europe. Various name changes are plotted through the company's history:
1744 - Imperial Porcelain Factory
1918 - State Porcelain Factory
1925 - Lomonosov Porcelain Factory
1936 - Leningrad Porcelain Factory
1993 - Lomonosov Porcelain Factory
2005 - Imperial Porcelain Factory


A.K. Lansere, 'Soviet Porcelain. The Artistry of the Lomonossov Porcelain Factory' (Leningrad, 1974)
G. Agarkova & N. Petrova, '250 Years of Lomonosov Porcelain Manufacture, St. Petersburg: 1744-1994' (St. Petersburg, 1994)
'An Imperial Fascination: Porcelain. Dining with the Czars: Peterhof', exhibition catalogue, (New York, 1991)
E. Kirichenko & M. Anikst, 'The Russian Style' (London, 1991)
L. Andreeva, 'Soviet Porcelain 1920-1930' (Moscow, 1975)
N. Lobanov-Rostocsky, 'Revolutionary Ceramics: Soviet Porcelain 1919-1927' (New York, 1990)