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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Franklin White (Biographical details)

Franklin White (scientist/engineer; South African; British; Male; 1850 - 1928)

Also known as

White, Franklin


Born in England, worked as a mining engineer in Columbia before emigrating to South Africa in 1889 to assume the management of a number of gold mines in the then South African Republic. A member of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, he published papers on aspects of gold mining and travelled in South Africa and Australia before settling in Zimbabwe. He was the first person to report the presence there of prehistoric stone artefacts (at Khami) and the first to excavate a Stone Age site in Zimbabwe (White 1905). He subsequently also worked at the early homind site of Broken Hill Cave in Zambia, from which he collected faunal remains (J.D.Clark.pers.comm).