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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (Biographical details)

Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (ruler; royal/imperial; Austro-Hungarian; Male; 1741/2 - 1790)

Also known as

Joseph; Romans; Joseph II


Reigned jointly with his mother, Maria Theresa. Succeeded by his brother Leopold II.