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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Sir Charles Alfred Bell KCIE, CMG (Biographical details)

Sir Charles Alfred Bell KCIE, CMG (official; academic/intellectual; British; Male; 1870 - 1945)

Also known as

Bell, Charles Alfred; Bell, Charles


Political officer and author; Indian Civil Service 1891-1919, on political duty in Tibet, Bhutan and Sikkim 1904-21, adviser to British Plenipotentiary (Sir Henry McMahon) at Simla Conference on Tibet 1913-14; in retirement devoted himself to scholarly study, publishing several books in which he sought to interpret Tibet to the outside world. He donated Tibetan objects to the BM in 1933 with a further bequest in 1946. Bell's papers and photographs are housed at the Royal Society for Asian Affairs.
His works include:
The People of Tibet (Oxford, 1928)
Manual of Colloquial Tibetan. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1905
‘ A Year in Lhasa’, Geographical Journal, volume 63, 1924: 89-105
Tibet: Past and Present. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924
The People of Tibet. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1928
The Religion of Tibet. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931
Portrait of the Dalai Lama. London: Collins, 1946

some official papers in OIOC BL see Mss Eur F80