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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Arthur J Hopkinson (Biographical details)

Arthur J Hopkinson (photographer; official; British; Male; 1894 - 1953)

Also known as

Hopkinson, Arthur J


Last British Political Officer and Resident in Sikkim. Visited Tibet in 1926 and again in 1947 with his wife Eleanor during which time they made a month’s tour of the Tibetan administrative centres of Shigatse, Gyantse and Sakya in order to tell the authorities, at the behest of Whitehall, that the British were leaving India and thenceforth they would be dealing with an independent India. On September 1, 1948, Arthur Hopkinson handed over his post to his Indian successor. Arthur Hopkinson became an Anglican clergyman in Whitby and died in 1953. Eleanor Hopkinson was born on December 24, 1905 and died on March 16, 2007. For her obituary see the The Times (3 May 2007).