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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


General Marie Louis Ferrand (Biographical details)

General Marie Louis Ferrand (military/naval; French; Male; 1753 - 1808)

Also known as

Ferrand, Marie Louis


As a volunteer, he fought through the war of American independence; on his return to France he entered a regiment of dragoons; in 1792 he was promoted to a lieutenancy, and in 1793 was made captain; shortly afterward, he was arrested and imprisoned as a royalist, but was liberated and made brigadier general, serving with distinction in the army of the west; in 1802, he was made governor of Valenciennes; Napoleon, in 1804, made him lieutenant general, and then captain general, of Santo Domingo and he had full authority to carry out plans for reform