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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Lakṣmī (Biographical details)

Lakṣmī (deity; Hindu; Buddhist; Jain; Female)

Also known as

Lakṣmī; Lakshmi; Laksmi; Gajalakṣmī; Gaja Lakṣmī; Gaja-Lakṣmī; Jixiangtian (吉祥天); Kichijoten


Hindu goddess; originally personified the earth and fertility; later evolved into the goddess of fortune, wealth and prosperity. Also represented as the counterpart of Viṣṇu: where he is the creator, she is creation; where he is righteousness, she is devotion (etc.). Often depicted with an owl. As Gaja-Lakṣmī, depicted with elephants who are lustrating her. Popularly worshipped by Hindus, Buddhists and Jains, Lakṣmī's image can be found carved on door lintels where she protects the inhabitants of a house.


Dallapiccola, 'Hindu Lore and Legend', London 2002.