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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Kobayashi Kiyochika (小林清親) (Biographical details)

Kobayashi Kiyochika (小林清親) (painter/draughtsman; Japanese; Male; 1847 - 1915)

Also known as

Kiyochika, Kobayashi


Painter and print artist.


Henry D Smith II, Kiyochika – Artist of Meiji Japan, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1988.