What just happened?

To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


William Benbow (Biographical details)

William Benbow (publisher/printer; British; Male; 1816 - 1840s; fl.)

Also known as

Benbow, William


(1816) St Clements Church Yard (1820) 269 Strand, London (Corner of St Clement's Church Yard) (1825) 252 High Holborn


Radical publisher and printer of satirical prints in London. Originally a Manchester shoemaker who came to London in 1816, imprisoned 1817. Paid secret sums to suppress anti-Crown caricatures in 1820. Prosecuted in 1821 for seditious libels, but thrown out by the Westminster Grand jury after he had been imprisoned for 8 months; his business collapsed as a result. In 8122 prosecuted for pirating Byron and for obscene publications. In the 1840s a Chartist.


Vic Gatrell, 'City of Laughter', 2006, pp.531-5 and 597