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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Francis Cotes (Biographical details)

Francis Cotes (painter/draughtsman; British; Male; 1726 - 1770)

Also known as

Cotes, Francis


Portrait painter; born London 1726, d. there 1770; elder brother of miniaturist Samuel Cotes; apprenticed to George Knapton in early 1740s; began using and preparing crayons; first pastels date from 1747 and serious use of oils from 1757; after 1746 draperies in portraits often by Peter Toms, who also collaborated with Reynolds; SA 1760-68, then foundation member RA; from 1765 living in Cavendish Square; earliest portrait of royal family dates 1767; published short writing on pastel technique in European Magazine 1797; John Russell was his pupil.


E.M. Johnson, 'FC', 1976