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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Ferdinand II, King of Naples and Sicily (Biographical details)

Ferdinand II, King of Naples and Sicily (ruler; Italian; Male; 1810; 1830 - 1859; 1859; ; ruled)

Also known as

Ferdinand II; Two Sicilies


Son of Frances I (q.v.) whom he succeeded in 1830. At first thought to be a liberal, he led an authoritarian reign, repressing revolts. Had to grant the kingdom a constitution after a rising in Palermo (12 Jan 1848); but later regained control of Sicily after heavy bombardments (hence his nickname of King Bomba).