Rembrandt (Biographical details)

Rembrandt (printmaker; painter/draughtsman; Dutch; Male; 1606 - 1669)

Also known as

Rembrandt; Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn; Rijn, Rembrandt van

Biography

Painter, draughtsman and etcher of portraits, landscapes and historical and biblical subjects. Born in Leiden the son of a mill-owner; in 1620 after completing his tuition at the Leiden Latin School enrolled at Leiden University; began a three-year apprenticeship in Leiden to a minor painter Jacob Isaacz. Swanenburgh (q.v.); from 1624-5 a pupil of Pieter Lastman (q.v.), a leading painter in Amsterdam, for about six months after which he set himself up as an independent painter in Leiden and worked closely with Jan Lievens. In or around 1631 he settles permanently in Amsterdam; marries Saskia van Uylenburgh (q.v.) in 1634; in 1649 Hendrickje Stoffels enters his houshold as a servant and they have a child, Cornelia, together; 1656-8 his assets, art collection, and home sold to pay off his creditors.

OUTLINE BIOGRAPHY:
1606     Born in Leiden, son of a mill-owner
1620 After completing tuition at the Leiden Latin School, enrolled at Leiden University, but does not study there.
1621     Begins three-year apprenticeship in Leiden to Jacob van Swanenburgh.
1624-5     Studies with Pieter Lastman, the leading painter in Amsterdam, for about six months.
c.1625     Sets up as an independent painter in Leiden. Works closely with Jan Lievens until c.1631.
1631     Settles permanently in Amsterdam.
1632     Paints 'The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Tulp' (now in the Mauritshuis, The Hague).
1633-9     Series of six paintings depicting Christ's Passion executed for the head of state, Prince Frederik     Hendrik of Orange (now in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich).
1634     Marries Saskia van Uylenburgh.
1639     Buys a large home with a studio in Amsterdam (now the Museum het Rembrandthuis). His financial obligations on making this purchase were a major source of his financial difficulties in the 1650s.
1641     Birth of his son Titus van Rijn, the first of his children to survive infancy.
1642     Death of Saskia. Completes the so-called 'Night Watch'.
By 1649 Hendrickje Stoffels a member of his household as a servant; she replaced another servant, Geertje     Dircx, in his affections.
1654     Birth of Cornelia, his daughter by Hendrickje.
1656     Assigns his assets to his creditors via the courts. His assets (including his house and art collections    ) are sold to pay his debts in 1656-8.
1661     His painting of 'The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis', commissioned for the Amsterdam Town Hall.     Probably judged a failure, it is replaced by a pupil's work (a fragment of Rembrandt's painting survives in the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm).
1663     Death of Hendrickje.
1668     Death of Titus van Rijn.
1669     Death of Rembrandt in Amsterdam.

Bibliography

(Catalogues of drawings)
Otto Benesch, 'The Drawings of Rembrandt', Oxford 1973 (6 vols)
A.M.Hind, 'Catalogue of Dutch & Flemish drawings in .. the British Museum', BM 1931
(Catalogues of prints)
A.M.Hind, 'A catalogue of Rembrandt's etchings chronologically arranged' London 1924
Chistopher White & Karel Boon, 'Rembrandt's etchings, an illustrated critical catalogue', Amsterdam 1969 (the numbering is the same as that of Bartsch's catalogue of 1797 which is not separately cited)
Eric Hinterding and others, 'Rembrandt the Printmaker', BM 2000 (exhibition catalogue, not including all the prints)
(various)
Stephanie Dickey in J.M.Montias Gedenkschrift 2006, pp.149ff (on the market for Rembandt's etchings)