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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Francesco da Sangall (Biographical details)

Francesco da Sangall (sculptor/medallist; Italian; Male; 1494 - 1576)

Also known as

Sangallo, Francesco da


Sculptor, worked Florence. b. Florence 1494 - d. Florence 1576.
Nothing is known of his artistic training, although it has been suggested that his master may have been Andrea Sansovino (c. 1470-1529), after whose death he helped complete the sculptural decorations of the Santa Casa di Loreto, along with Raffaello da Montelupo (q.v.) and other sculptors of his generation. His first important Florentine commission was for the marble group of the 'Virgin and Child with St Anne' for Orsanmichele (1522). He carved several important tombs, including those of Angelo Marzi, in SS Annunziata (1546); of Leonardo Buonafede, in the Certosa del Galluzzo (1550): see 1946,0713.5; and of Piero de' Medici, in the Abbey at Montecassino (1532-58). He also worked as a military engineer, designing defences for Prato and Pistoia in 1528, Cortona in 1529 and Fucecchio in 1530.


Turner, Florentine Drawings of the Sixteenth Century, London, 1986