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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


John Raphael Smith (Biographical details)

John Raphael Smith (publisher/printer; printmaker; British; Male; 1751 - 1812)

Also known as

Smith, John Raphael


No. 4 Exeter Court, Exeter Change, Strand (1772-73) No 10 Batemans Buildings, Soho Square (1775-80) 83 [opposite the Pantheon] Oxford Street, London (in 1781-86) 31 King Street, Covent Garden, London (in 1782-1806) 33 Newman Street, London (1806-11)


Mezzotinter and pastel portraitist; acted as the publisher of (some of) his own prints. Announced his retirement from printmaking in favour of portraiture in 1802, and sold stock of 400 copper plates at Christie's.


Chaloner Smith
Julia Frankau, 'JRS, his life and works', 1906
Ellen D'Oench, 'Copper into Gold, prints by JRS', Yale 1999 (reproduces pp.259-264 Smith's own stocklist of 302 plates)