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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


Joseph Swain (Biographical details)

Joseph Swain (printmaker; British; Male; 1820 - 1909)

Also known as

Swain, Joseph; Joseph Swain & Son; J. Swain & Son


Major London wood-engraver, with contract for blocks for Punch. The signature, "Swain", appears on blocks cut in his large workshop (later J.Swain & Son) and does not necessarily indicate that he cut them himself. The BM purchased a large collection of proofs from the firm in 1908 (1908,0414.399 to 1063) and 1912 (1912,0612.181 to 480).


R K Engen, Dictionary of Victorian Wood Engravers, 1985