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To celebrate Vikings Live, we have replaced our Roman alphabet with the runic alphabet used by the Vikings, the Scandinavian ‘Younger Futhark’. The ‘Younger Futhark’ has only 16 letters, so we have used some of the runic letters more than once or combined two runes for one Roman letter.

For an excellent introduction to runes, we recommend Martin Findell’s book published by British Museum Press.

More information about how we have ‘runified’ this site


John White (Biographical details)

John White (painter/draughtsman; British; American (USA); Male; 1585 - 1593; fl.)

Also known as

White, John


Watercolourist, the first British artist in America and first European to paint Native Americans (about 1585-6); governor of the colony at Roanoke (1587)


ECM 1960
1965, 'The Watercolor Drawings of John White', Paul Hulton, exh. cat. organized by BM, and shown at NGA, Washington and elsewhere
Paul Hulton, David Beers Quinn, eds., 'The American Drawings of John White' cat. raisonné in 2 vols with facsimiles of the drawings, London BM and Chapel Hill, 1964
Paul Hulton, 'America 1585: The Complete Drawings of John White', BM and Chapel Hill, 1984
1984-5, 'Raleigh & Roanoke: the First English Colony in America, 1584-1590', Helen Wallis, exh. cat., organized by British Library and shown in BL and Raleigh NC and NY Public Library
Kim Sloan, 'A New World: England's first iew of America', exh. cat. with essays and with reproductions of all the drawings, organized by BM and shown there and Raleigh, NC, and elsewhere, 2007 (BMP and Chapel Hill)